CTBT: Science and Technology 2019 Conference

Hofburg, Vienna,Austria

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) relies on innovation to enhance the capabilities of the Treaty’s verification regime as well as to help move the Treaty closer to universalization and entry into force. As the fifth event in the CTBT: Science and Technology conference series, SnT2019 will bring together around 1000 scientists, technologists, academics, students, CTBTO policy makers, members of the media and representatives of organizations involved in research and development that is relevant to all aspects of Treaty verification.

Report and Executive Summaries:

Conference objectives:

  • To identify scientific opportunities and methods for improving nuclear test monitoring and verification;
  • To identify how scientific developments and cooperation can support national needs and frame policy objectives in support of the CTBT;
  • To broaden and strengthen the engagement of scientific communities working in test ban monitoring, including young scientists, and to enhance geographic and gender representations of these communities;
  • To support the exchange of knowledge and ideas between the CTBTO and the broader scientific community;
  • To promote the wider civil and scientific applications of techniques and data used for test ban verification;
  • To highlight the CTBT’s successful model for multilateral science diplomacy and cooperation.



The SnT Support Team
    • 1
      Registration, Coffee
    • 2
      High Level Opening of the CTBT: Science and Technology 2019 Conference

      Ceremonial Opening

      Opening statement
      Lassina Zerbo, CTBTO Executive Secretary

      Words of Welcome
      Iris Rauskala, Austrian Federal Minister of Science, Education and Research

      Keynote Address
      Ban Ki-moon, 8th Secretary-General of the United Nations

      Scientific Keynote Address
      Sir Mark Welland, Master of St Catharine’s College, University of Cambridge

    • 3
      High Level Panel: CTBT: Science and Technology in a changing World

      Izumi Nakamitsu, United Nations Under-Secretary-General and
      High Representative for Disarmament Affairs
      Romain Murenzi, Executive Director, The World Academy of Sciences
      Jennifer Thomson, President,
      Organization for Women in Science for the Developing World

    • 4
      Lunch Break
    • T2.4 Atmospheric and Subsurface Radionuclide Background and Dispersion Rittersaal (Hofburg)



      • 5
        Analysis of high time-resolution observations of radioxenon releases from BWRs compared to stack data and reactor operation parameters

        The newly developed SAUNA III – radioxenon system prototype has been running in Stockholm since 2016 and provided a rich data set of atmospheric radioxenon observations with 6 hour time resolution. A large part of the observed plumes originates from releases from the nuclear power plant Forsmark, located 110 km north of the system, and includes many observations/releases with three or even four isotopes. To gain better understanding of the observed plume shapes and isotopic ratios, data has been compared with stack- and other operational data provided by the plant, in combination with different atmospheric transport models as well as calculations of different nuclear production- and separation scenarios.

        Speaker: Anders Ringbom (Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI))
      • 6
        Application of Computational Fluid Dynamic in the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides at Fukushima disaster.

        Atmospheric dispersion modeling is used to predict radionuclide concentrations worldwide, modeling is useful to study the impact of an accident or nuclear event on the environment. This kind of simulations provides ways to find better decisions in case of some event may occur, Gaussian model is the most used model but it has some limitations as time scales and wind direction changes, while CFD is a powerful tool to calculate the concentration of particulates including parameters of wind velocity and presence of obstacles. The Fukushima disaster is one of the most significant nuclear incident since Chernobyl, a monitoring network from Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) found information about the spread of radioactive particles related to Fukushima accident in more than 35 radionuclide stations. This work aimed to compare the Gaussian model dispersion with Computer Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations and some monitory system CTBTO radionuclides data related to Fukushima disaster.

        Speaker: Carlos Eduardo Santos Bonfim (Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defense Institute)
    • T2.5 Historical Data from Nuclear Test Monitoring Forum (Hofburg)



      • 7
        Digitization and analysis of printed seismograms from aftershocks of the Novaya Zemlya explosion on October 27, 1973

        In October 1973, a nuclear explosive with a yield of about 4 megatons was detonated underground at the Novaya Zemlya test site. The explosion was followed by a series of aftershocks, a phenomenon that had previously not been observed at Novaya Zemlya. Today, very few short period seismic recordings of these aftershocks exist. At the Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), printed short period seismograms from the Hagfors station have been preserved, and in this paper we present the results of scanning these seismograms and digitizing the signal. The digitization process as well as the associated difficulties are explained together with an analysis of the properties of the seismic signals from the aftershocks. Finally, a comparison with the aftershocks following the nuclear test on Sep 3, 2017 in North Korea is made. The region of Novaya Zemlya is a very low seismicity region. In the ISC catalogue between 1960 and 2016 only 57 earthquakes are found. The identification of the aftershocks is quite easy in both time and space.

        Speaker: Carl Fredrik Hellesen (Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI))
      • 8
        Noble Gases Release after Underground Nuclear Explosions

        Underground nuclear explosion may be follow of the noble gases release. 493 underground nuclear tests and explosions of different purposes and in the different rocks were conducted in the Soviet Union over period in 1961-1990. A total of 340 underground nuclear tests were conducted at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. 179 explosions (52.6%) among them were classified as these of complete containment, 145 explosions (42.6%) as explosions with weak release of radioactive noble gases (RNG), 12 explosions (3.5%) as explosions with nonstandard radiation situation. Thirty-nine nuclear tests had been conducted at the Novaya Zemlya Test Site; six of them – in shafts (vertical boreholes) and 33 tests in the horizontal tunnels. In 14 tests (36%) there were no RNG release. Twenty-three tests have been accompanied by RNG release into the atmosphere without residual contamination. Nonstandard radiation situation occurred in two tests. In incomplete containment explosions both early-time RNG release (up to ~1 h) and late-time release from 1 to 28 h after the explosion were observed. Sometimes gas release took place for several days, and it occurred either through tunnel portal or epicentral zone, depending on atmospheric air temperature and pressure. Figures of stemming complexes will presented.

        Speaker: Yurii Dubasov (Khlopin Radium Institute)
    • T2.4 Atmospheric and Subsurface Radionuclide Background and Dispersion Rittersaal (Hofburg)



      • 9
        Assessment of Temporal Variations of Natural Radionuclides Beryllium-7 and Lead-212 in Surface Air in Tanay, Philippines

        Physico-chemical processes occurring in the atmosphere play an important part in the global distribution of radionuclides. In this study, radionuclide concentrations of cosmogenic and terrestrial radionuclides Beryllium-7 and Lead-212 in surface air and meteorological data collected by the CTBTO Radionuclide Monitoring Station PHP52 in Tanay, Philippines were assessed to understand the atmospheric conditions involved in radionuclide distribution in tropical climates. Daily activity concentrations of Pb-212 and Be-7 and daily meteorological data from 2012 to 2017 were retrieved and plotted against sample collection date using Microsoft Excel and evaluated for possible correlations. Surface air concentrations of Be-7 and Pb-212 were found to range from 0.00779±0.00188 to 11.2±0.116 mBq/m3 and from 1.371±0.036 to 106.6±1.075 mBq/m3, respectively, and show a consistently similar trend annually. Positive and negative correlations were observed between radionuclide concentrations and meteorological data, supporting observations from other literature that radionuclide concentrations in surface air are affected by atmospheric conditions such as temperature, humidity, and amount of precipitation, which varies depending on the season. This is further supported by the observed annual trends on radionuclide activity concentrations which follow the dry and wet season observed in tropical climates such as the Philippines.

        Speaker: Paolo Tristan Cruz (CTBTO)
      • 10
        Contribution of all nuclear research reactors to the global radioxenon emission inventory

        Radioactive xenon isotopes provide the most likely observable radioactive signatures of underground nuclear explosions. These isotopes are frequently detected by IMS noble gas systems as a result of normal operational releases from different types of nuclear facilities including nuclear power plants (NPPs) and medical isotope production facilities (MIPFs), reprocessing facilities and nuclear research reactors (NRRs). Improving the knowledge about the impact of different emission sources on IMS observations leads to strengthen the screening of radioxenon detection results. The contribution of NPPs and MIPFs to the global radioxenon emission inventory is fairly well understood. NRRs are the only source type of which contributions to IMS observations have not yet been systematically assessed. This study is the first attempt to assess the total emission inventory of nuclear research reactors expressed as annual total discharges. The results can be used for guiding future studies and enhancing the understanding of the impact of known sources on the IMS background observations.

        Speaker: Pouneh Tayyebi (Iran Nuclear Regulatory Authority)
      • 11
        Half a century of krypton-85 measurements in the atmosphere of Central Europe

        Large quantities of the radioactive noble gas krypton-85 (85Kr) are released into the atmosphere as a result of reprocessing of used nuclear fuel rods. Reprocessing started in the 1940s mainly to separate plutonium for military purposes. Emissions from civil reprocessing activities have steadily been increasing since and impede on the use of 85Kr as an indicator for clandestine plutonium production. For almost half a century weekly samples of surface air have been collected by the Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz (BfS), Germany, for the measurement of 85Kr. Sampling at Freiburg started in 1973, Mt Schauinsland in 1976 and Jungfraujoch in the Swiss Alps in 1990. The complete time series will be presented and discussed, as well as results from particular weeks. Weekly baseline and average 85Kr activity concentrations in the atmosphere of Central Europe were modelled from almost 12,000 individual measurements at 11 stations and will be presented. The baseline and average have continuously increased, interrupted by a relatively stable period from 2009 to 2013. Since then 85Kr activity concentrations have increased and are currently at a baseline level of approximately 1.45 Bq/m3.

        Speaker: Andreas Bollhöfer (Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Institution for Atmospheric Radiation/Support)
      • 12
        High Resolution stack data from fission based Mo-99 production

        The Source Term Analysis of Xenon (STAX) project is a new effort to better understand the radioxenon background in the environment. This project is using high resolution stack detectors to directly measure the radioxenon emissions from fission-based Mo-99 production facilities. Currently, two experimental high purity germanium (HPGe) based detector systems reside at the Institute for Radioelements (IRE) in Fleurus Belgium and at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) in Australia, which are two of the large suppliers of worldwide Mo-99 for medical uses. Direct measurement of the four treaty relevant radioxenon isotopes (Xe-131m, Xe-133, Xe-133m and Xe-135) is being measured every fifteen minutes using these HPGe detector systems. A discussion of the detector technology and example data sets will be presented.

        Speaker: Judah Friese (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)
      • 13
        Search for radioxenon signals at IMS stations possibly associated with announced DPRK nuclear tests

        Since the provisional operation of the International Monitoring System (IMS) started, six announced underground nuclear tests were conducted by the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) at the Punggye-ri Nuclear Test Site. For the first test (9 October 2006) and the third one (12 February 2013), radioxenon observations were made by IMS stations that were immediately reported to State Signatories as associated with the time and location of the relevant seismic events and, therefore, consistent with the assumption that the observations are reflecting a radioxenon emission from the DPRK test site. The isotopic ratios recorded in April 2013 are considered a strong evidence for the nuclear nature of the seismic event of 12 February 2013. Further investigation by various authors with in-depth scientific analysis, partly applying new methodologies in the domain of atmospheric transport modelling, have revealed that potentially more IMS samples than initially thought may contain traces from the same hypothetical emissions that were already identified or even additional potential emissions occurred and were captured at IMS stations. The applied algorithms are reviewed and the IMS observations are scrutinized. Conclusions are drawn about what future research and development can be recommended for radionuclide monitoring of nuclear tests.

        Speaker: Martin B. Kalinowski (CTBTO Preparatory Commission)
    • T2.5 Historical Data from Nuclear Test Monitoring Forum (Hofburg)



      • 14
        Using Satellite Imagery to Map Russia's Underground Nuclear Test Site on Novaya Zemlya

        In 1997, the United States accused Russia of conducting a secret nuclear test at its underground test site on Novaya Zemlya. Despite admitting later that the August 17, 1997, event was an earthquake in the Kara Sea, U.S. officials maintained that activity observed at the test site prior to the earthquake was similar to activity observed before previous nuclear tests. The activity the United States observed was actually preparations for a subcritical nuclear experiment on August 14, highlighting the need to better differentiate between observables associated with subcritical and full-scale nuclear tests. CNS used a combination of declassified historical satellite imagery and contemporary high-resolution commercial satellite imagery to map the evolution of the Soviet Union's underground nuclear test campaign on Novaya Zemlya, as well as record signatures associated with underground nuclear tests at the site. Establishing a visual baseline of historical activity allows for better assessment of on-going activity and potential treaty-relevant events at the test site.

        Speaker: Anne Pellegrino (James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies)
    • 15
      The Forum on Global Citizenship and Youth Inclusion, Co-Organized with the Ban Ki-moon Centre for Global Citizens

      Including Heinz Fischer, former President of the Republic of Austria; Ban Ki-moon, 8th Secretary-General of the United Nations; Bachir Ismaël Ouedraogo, Minister of Energy of Burkina Faso; and Monika Fröhler, Chief Executive Officer of the Ban Ki-moon Centre for Global Citizens

    • T3.4 Augmented Reality and Fusion of Data from Different Monitoring Technologies Forum (Hofburg)



      • 16
        Recreating and exploring the DPRK nuclear test site in 3D to calculate possible overburdens for detonations

        In 2018 the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea invited selected journalists to its nuclear test site where they photographed and videoed the destruction of some features. The imagery revealed detail previously unseen by the outside world, including a map showing the tunnel entrances (adits) and test locations. We have used that imagery and other data to recreate the test site in 3D; explore it in virtual reality and make estimates of indicative minimum overburdens for the tests. We geolocated the map then extracted locations for the tests and adits by using imagery from the event, a digital elevation model and satellite imagery. During the process 3D visualisation software was used to reconstruct the test site, geolocate the adits and explore the site in immersive virtual reality. Virtual poster boards showing some of the photographs were created and positioned to replicate the original photograph locations, which helped to geolocate the adits and understand the wider site layout. Previous work that calculated the tests’ locations, using seismic data was repeated using the locations from the map. The two datasets were compared and the minimum overburden for each test was calculated assuming a straight line between the adit and test location.

        Speaker: James Palmer (AWE Aldermaston)
    • 17
      Opening of PTS Exhibition: Goals and Needs, with Coffee and Refreshments
    • 18
      Roundtable Discussion in Spanish: Aplicaciones Civiles Y Científicas Y Programas De Capacitación De La OTPCE : Un Bien Global Para La Comunidad Internacional

      CTBTO Civil and Scientific Applications and Capacity Building Programmes: A Global Good for the International

      Jordi Kuhs

      Ambassador Marcel Fortuna Biato
      Ambassador Alicia Buenrostro Massieu
      Ignacio Cartagena Núñez
      Ambassador Luis Gallegos-Chiriboga
      Emma Polanco Melo
      Minister José Fidel Santana Núñez

    • 19
    • 20
      Roundtable Discussion in French: Promotion De L’entrée En Vigueur Du TICE - Perspectives Et Initiatives

      Boosting CTBT Entry into Force: Perspectives and Initiatives

      Alain Foka

      Ambassador Maria Assunta Accili Sabbatini
      Ambassador Faouzia Boumazia Mebarki
      Ambassador Roger Albéric Kacou
      Jacques Krabal
      Rémi Quirion
      Ambassador Malik Sarr

    • 21
    • 22
      Panel Discussion: Women In Science And Technology

      Opening Remarks
      Lassina Zerbo, CTBTO Executive Secretary

      Yael Lavie

      Sabah Al Momin
      Sanghamitra Bandyopadhyay
      Joanna Bartley
      Grace Liu
      Alena Yakovleva

    • 23
      Cocktail Reception
    • 24
      Panel Discussion: Youth as an Agent of Change: Ideas and Inspirations from this New Generation

      Moderator: Elena Sokova
      Panellists: Marzhan
      Nurzhan, Gaopalelwe
      Santswere, Tatsu Suzuki,
      Hind Touissate

    • T1.1 Atmospheric Dynamics Forum (Hofburg)



      • 25
        Application of advanced data assimilation techniques to improve atmospheric transport and dispersion predictions

        Accurate meteorological modeling is critical for obtaining realistic atmospheric transport and dispersion (T&D) predictions. There are several data assimilation (DA) techniques used to improve meteorological results. Two common philosophies are nudging and variational DA. Traditionally, nudging is used in T&D, whereas more sophisticated variational techniques are used in weather forecasting. Here, these two DA techniques are investigated in order to assess their specific impacts on T&D results and to determine if the more advanced DA techniques used in weather forecasting can be employed for T&D applications. The two methods are applied in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for the Colorado Springs Tracer Experiment (COSTEX). First, WRF results are verified and validated against available measurements of temperature, wind speed, and wind direction. Next T&D simulations for COSTEX are performed with the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model. Using the COSTEX tracer observations, the correlation, fractional bias, figure of merit in space, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov parameter are computed to evaluate the robustness of the T&D simulations and identify which DA technique provides the most realistic results. Overall this study provides guidance for the meteorological community as to which DA techniques provide the most value for T&D simulations.

        Speaker: Nicholas Heath (U.S. Air Force Technical Applications Center)
      • 26
        Assessing middle atmosphere weather models using LiDAR and ambient noise: a case study for IS26

        In routine processing of IMS infrasound data at the IDC, microbaroms with dominant frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 Hz appear in overlapping frequency bands and are considered as noise. In this study, microbarom signals were used as calibration signals, and their amplitudes at the German infrasound station IS26 were modelled based on operational ocean wave interaction simulations and a semi-empirical attenuation relation. This relation strongly depends on the middle atmosphere (MA) dynamics; however, vertical temperature and wind profiles, provided by numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, have exhibited significant biases when compared with high-resolution LiDAR soundings. A fully autonomous LiDAR for MA temperature measurements was installed at IS26 for estimating uncertainties in the modelled amplitude. Temperature and wind perturbations, considering observed biases and deviations, were added to the operational high-resolution atmospheric model analysis produced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Such uncertainties in horizontal winds and temperature explain 97% of the actual detections, compared to 77% when using the direct NWP model output. Incorporating realistic wind and temperature uncertainties in NWP models, obtained by high-resolution LiDAR measurements, can thus significantly improve the understanding of a station’s detection capability throughout a year; especially during the hemispheric summer seasons.

        Speaker: Patrick Hupe (Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR))
      • 27
        Atmospheric boundary layer as a laboratory for modeling infrasound propagation and scattering in the atmosphere

        The experimental results of studying the effect of a fine-scale layered structure of a stably stratified atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) on fluctuations of the parameters of acoustic pulses generated with a certain period (1 min) by an artificial detonation source are presented. The vertical profiles of wind velocity fluctuations in the thin layers of the ABL have been retrieved using the wave forms and travel times of the recorded arrivals of pulses from the source. It is shown that the mechanism of scattering of pulse signals in a stably stratified ABL is similar to the mechanism of scattering of signals from ground surface explosions by layered nonhomogeneities of wind velocity and temperature in the stratosphere and lower thermosphere. The role of similarity parameter here place the dimensionless thickness of the reflecting nonhomogeneous layers, which is the vertical scale of the layer multiplied by the relative difference in effective sound velocity and normalized by the vertical wavelength. The effect of such inhomogeneities on the temporal fluctuations of the azimuth and arrival times of the signals is studied. The estimation of the error in localization of pulsed sources is given. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by RFBR N 18-55-05002

        Speaker: Igor Chunchuzov (Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Science)
      • 28
        Climate change through the eyes of radioisotopes

        Cosmogenic radionuclides beryllium-7 and sodium-22 are known atmospheric tracers and can be used together in a lock-in technique to effectively trace vertical air masses based on surface measurements. This technique allows to study progression and speed of atmospheric cells. Data show that the cells are decelerating during the summer period which is extending in time. This is caused by warming of the whole troposphere and increased tropopause height due to rising CO2 concentrations. Aestival episodes of persistent high-pressure systems over Europe with low pressure gradients that led to almost stationary thunderstorms are correlated with the observed deceleration of atmospheric cell movement. This demonstrates that 7Be and 22Na can be used as indicators for confirming several side effects of climate change while providing a new modelling tool in seasonal weather forecast.

        Speaker: Lucrezia Terzi (Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN))
      • 29
        Detection efficiency of the IMS for Bolides

        In this study we examined 344 bolides (airbursts) reported on the JPL CNEOS website (https://cneos.jpl.nasa.gov/fireballs/) between 2007-2018 and attempt to correlate these with infrasound detections. We found 206 of these bolides were detectable by at least one infrasound station while only 42 were automatically registered as part of the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) issued daily by CTBTO. However, this global REB detection rate of ~10% averaged from 2007-2018 is less than the "modern" rate (from 2014-2018) which approaches 20%. Above the 1 kT CTBTO design threshold, we find that 40% of airbursts are reported in the REB, while more than 90% are detectable at one or more infrasound stations. All airbursts with energy > 2 kT reported on the JPL fireball site since 2007 have been detected infrasonically. However, the REB is only complete above 15 kT with the automated detection system not having reported at least four airbursts with energies between 8 – 14 kT during 2007-2018. We will present details of the IMS airburst detection efficiency by season, airburst energy and other detection variables.

        Speaker: Peter Brown (University of Western Ontario)
      • 30
        NEMO - a global near real-time fireball monitoring system

        The NEar real-time MOnitoring system, called NEMO, is a project for world-wide and near real-time monitoring of bright fireballs, currently under development. NEMO is based on an alert system collecting information on fireball events and will be a combined world-wide database for large fireball events with the goal to analyse and combine data of these events from various data sources to maximize the scientific output. Based on social media, the alert system can provide very fast notifications for fireball events. Furthermore, diverse data sources are investigated like witness reports, meteorological satellite data, or the IMS infrasound data. There is still a lack of knowledge on extra-terrestrial objects in the intermediate size range (decimetres to metres). These objects cause bright fireballs when they impact the Earth’s Atmosphere, which they do frequently, but are too small to be detected by NEO (near-Earth object) surveys. To close this gap between large meteoroids and small asteroids is one of NEMO’s aims. In this talk a brief introduction on NEMO and its working principle will be given, illustrated by an example of a NEMO event: the Russian daytime fireball from 21 June 2018.

        Speaker: Theresa Lisel Maria Ott (Carl von Ossiertzky University of Oldenburg)
    • T4.1 Network Optimization Rittersaal (Hofburg)



      • 31
        Adaptable turnkey solution for Infrasound station

        In collaboration with the CTBTO engineering division, Enviroearth acquired step by step experience and expertise in the whole understanding of the infrasound monitoring station infrastructure. With the objective to homogenize existing and future IMS Infrasound stations, Enviroearth technical division contributed to redesign the infrasound station as a set of optimized, interchangeable and all interconnected modules. Some module’s design comes from the Commission’s field experience, when the others are the result of our own research and development studies. According to the specifications of the end-user and to the station environment, it will be necessary to select between several modules for: Wind-Noise Reducing System/ the Communication and the Power Supply systems/ Sensors /Digitizers, etc. Each module is the result of a technical studies and feedback of our long experience of stations upgrade on field and will be composed of: - A complete and optimized technical solution - A set of data sheet - A list of pros and cons depending of the station particular environment The aim of this complete study is to present a simple, adaptable and turnkey solution for the installation of an Infrasound Monitoring Station, always targeting a continuous improvement of the robustness and sustainability of the IMS network.

        Speaker: Rémi Jean Yves Colbalchini (CTBTO)
      • 32
        Latest Development of the Standard Station Interface Calibration Module

        The SSI calibration module is a tool that extends the Standard Station Interface (SSI) for intuitive execution of instrumental calibrations and review of calibration results. It aims to (1) support the complex planning, technical execution, evaluation and reporting of the calibration of IMS seismic and T-phase stations (2) provide a single, standard interface that masks the heterogeneity of the hardware/software used at different IMS stations and (3) standardize the communication through full implementation of IMS2.0 format to dramatically ease the exchange, parsing and review of calibration messages, for both the Station Operator and PTS staff. The module was deployed at a few pilot stations and the PTS currently continues the deployment at other stations.

        Speaker: Yacine Sid Ahmed (CTBTO Preparatory Commission)
      • 33
        More Mission Less Money - How to Effectively Optimize Your Network Through Total Life Cycle Management

        Nuclear treaty monitoring is dependent upon a reliable sensor network to achieve mission capability. However, a failure to effectively plan, execute or manage your network through its entire life cycle will result in performance degradation potentially threatening successful event detection. AFTAC’s Center of Engineering Excellence has developed a comprehensive approach to total life cycle management to optimize network performance while minimizing total ownership cost and risk. This holistic approach focuses on rigorous understanding of key performance parameters, robust system design principles and detailed support concepts that are required to ensure desired mission capability objectives are met. AFTAC Systems Engineers successfully implemented this technical management framework with tremendous results including increases in network data availability, quality and timeliness while achieving unprecedented levels of cost savings across the organization.

        Speaker: Stephen Poindexter (AFTAC)
    • 34
      Panel Discussion: Communicating Science

      Preceding: Documentary “CTBTO: Ending Nuclear Explosions”
      Moderator: François Murphy
      Panellists: James Gillies, Yael Lavie, Tooba Masood, Karin Orantes

    • T4.2 Systems Engineering Rittersaal (Hofburg)



      • 35
        A New Approach to Supportability Analysis for the IMS, based on the Cross-Industry Standard Process for Data Mining (CRISP-DM)

        Sustaining a technically complex and globally distributed network such as the International Monitoring System (IMS) presents multiple challenges, particularly when combined with the high levels of data availability required. To this end, the IMS Analysis Team has already developed several components of an integrated support system, including various data gathering methods, supporting analysis and modelling capability, for decision making. Building on this earlier work and the lessons learned, the need for a standardized data mining approach to supportability analysis was recognized. The poster shows how the Cross-Industry Standard Process for Data Mining (CRISP-DM) framework as a best practice can be applied in IMS.

        Speaker: Peter Benicsak (CTBTO Preparatory Commission)
      • 36
        FaultNet: A Deep-Learning Framework for Data-Gap Analysis

        Each year, National Data Centers (NDCs) experience thousands of data gaps, often requiring human intervention to restore timely data. Understanding the source of these gaps is critical for maintaining mission capabilities. To address this, we present a three-tiered framework for real-time automated data-gap analysis: First, we present an Internet of Things (IoT)-based equipment suite, providing low-overhead status-of-health (SOH) monitoring capabilities at every instrument. We next describe an open-source infrastructure monitoring tool capable of collecting and trending the SOH-streams in real-time. Finally, we present FaultNet, a deep neural network algorithm that analyzes the raw SOH streams and produces a probabilistic model for source-fault analysis. Deep Neural Network-based analysis is currently responsible for revolutionary advances in equipment maintainability, and the FaultNet framework has the potential to both reduce outage response-time for NDCs, and improve data availability at the IDC.

        Speaker: Joshua Dickey (U.S. Air Force Technical Applications Center)
      • 37
        Geophysical Monitoring System (GMS) development for IDC Re-engineering

        Sandia National Laboratories is developing the Geophysical Monitoring System (GMS) for modernization of the United States National Data Center waveform processing system. Concurrently, the International Data Centre (IDC) has begun the development phase of their IDC Re-engineering project to improve capabilities and maintainability of their waveform processing system. GMS has substantial overlap with IDC system requirements, so the United States is providing the common architecture and processing components of GMS as a contribution-in-kind to accelerate progress on IDC Re-engineering. GMS is a substantial re-implementation of the waveform processing system using modern software languages and patterns. High level objectives include improving configurability and flexibility, capture of data provenance to provide insight into processing results, and extensibility to accommodate new processing and analysis components based on innovations emerging from the monitoring research community. GMS is being released as open source for use by the IDC and member states. The first release was made available in December 2018 for IDC review. The next release (2019) will provide a generic runnable system including basic components for data acquisition, automated processing, and interactive analysis. This presentation describes GMS project goals and milestones, system architecture and design, and new user interfaces for waveform and event analysis.

        Speaker: James Mark Harris (Sandia National Laboratories)
    • 38
      Coffee Break
    • 39
      CTBT Innovation Challenge Presentation and Discussion: CTBTO and the 2030 United Nations Agenda for Sustainable Development: Strengthening the Link

      Moderator: Angela Kane
      Panellists: Ambassador Abel Adelakun Ayoko, Ambassador John Bernhard, Ana María Cetto, Winners of the CTBTO
      Youth Group CTBT Innovation Challenge

    • 40
      Lunch Break
    • 41
      Highlight Talk 1: Knowledge of the Geosphere Structure And Dynamics – Knowledge Gained From 20 Years of the CTBT - Structure and Dynamics of the Atmosphere
    • 42
      Panel Discussion: Scientific Applications: Science of Climate Change with CTBT Technologies

      Moderator: Tammy Taylor
      Panellists: Rebecca Manzou, Hanne Sagen, Jean Sciare, Lucrezia Terzi

    • 43
      Poster Session 1: T1.1, T2.4, T2.5, T3.2, T3.3, T3.4, T4.1, T4.3, T4.4, T5.1, T5.3

      Topic T1.1 Atmospheric Dynamics
      T1.1-P1 Anak Krakatoa Volcano Eruption Identification Using IMS Infrasound Data
      T1.1-P2 Analysis of multiple detections of May 2011 Grímsvötn (Iceland) eruptive activity at different IMS infrasound stations and its correlation with local observations
      T1.1-P3 Analysis of multiple detections of Mount Etna eruptive activity at different IMS infrasound stations compared with near source observations
      T1.1-P4 Application of Information Technologies for Detecting, Analyzing & Determing the Atmospheric Dynamics
      T1.1-P5 ARISE project: Infrasound monitoring for civil applications
      T1.1-P6 Assessing middle atmosphere weather models using LiDAR and ambient noise: a case study for IS02
      T1.1-P7 Atmospheric Dynamics
      T1.1-P8 Characterizing ocean ambient noise using infrasound network
      T1.1-P9 Climate Change Impact & Adaptation Studies using Radionuclide Data
      T1.1-P10 CORAL – An autonomous middle atmosphere lidar in southern Argentina
      T1.1-P11 Estimating tropospheric and stratospheric large-scale wind components using infrasound from explosions
      T1.1-P12 EUNADICS-AV tracer experiment: Modelling and model evaluation
      T1.1-P13 Filling a gap in the wet scavenging scheme in FLEXPART 10.3
      T1.1-P14 IDC Infrasound technology developments
      T1.1-P15 Improving propagation-based, stochastic models for Bayesian infrasonic localization and characterization
      T1.1-P16 Improving the infrasound monitoring capability in Europe incorporating CEEIN
      T1.1-P17 Infrasound monitoring for global climate model calibration: a two-way collaboration
      T1.1-P18 Infrasound propagation in multiple-scale random media using surrogate models
      T1.1-P19 Large events recorded at the IMS infrasound network
      T1.1-P20 Large-Scale Gravity Current Over the Middle Hills of Nepal Himalaya
      T1.1-P21 Look-up tables with empirical climatologies for infrasound detection, location, and characterization of long range volcanic eruptions
      T1.1-P22 On the use of infrasound observations from volcanoes for improving the weather forecasts
      T1.1-P23 Probabilistic predictions and uncertainty estimation using adaptively designed ensembles for radiological plume modeling
      T1.1-P24 Suspended Particulate Matter condition in Indonesia on the period 2015-2017
      T1.1-P25 Temporal variations of the intensity spectra of atmospheric pressure fluctuations in different frequency ranges and their possible connection with climate change
      T1.1-P26 The Global and Coherent Infrasound Field: Revisiting the Reprocessing of the Full International Monitoring System Infrasound Data, Part 1: Processing
      T1.1-P27 The Global and Coherent Infrasound Field: Revisiting the Reprocessing of the Full International Monitoring System Infrasound Data, Part 2: Examples
      T1.1-P28 The Influence of Tropospheric Ducts on Long Range Infrasound Propagation
      T1.1-P29 Tropical Cyclones Activity in Southwest Pacific and Their Link to ENSO and Sunspot
      T1.1-P30 Using infrasound mobile array (I68CI) data to characterize tropical thunderstorm over West Africa

      Topic T2.4 Atmospheric and Subsurface Radionuclide Background and Dispersion
      T2.4-P1 Aerosol dynamics and dispersion of radioactive particles
      T2.4-P2 Application of source detective system for a Fukushima accident
      T2.4-P3 Argon-37 variability in the low troposphere
      T2.4-P4 Assessment of Radionuclides Present in Atmospheric Aerosol in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania by using Gamma-ray Spectrometry
      T2.4-P5 Atmospheric Dispersion and Ground Level Deposition of Cs-137 Released From Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident
      T2.4-P6 Atmospheric dispersion assessment of radioxenon after North Korea's 6th nuclear test using LADAS model
      T2.4-P7 Atmospheric Dispersion during Normal & Accidental Release in Jordan Research and Training Reactor
      T2.4-P8 Atmospheric Dispersion for Guassian Straight Line Plume Model During Normal & Accidental Release
      T2.4-P9 Atmospheric Dispersion of Radionuclides from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant and Comparison with CTBTO Station Observations
      T2.4-P10 Atmospheric Dispersion of Radionuclides Originating from Hypothetical Accidents and Normal Operation in Research Reactors and Medial Production Facilities
      T2.4-P11 Atmospheric Dispersion of Radionuclides Originating from Hypothetical Accidents at Rooppur Nuclear Power Plants in Bangladesh
      T2.4-P12 Atmospheric Radioactivity over State of Kuwait: fission and activation radionuclides availability and concentrations during the last five years.
      T2.4-P13 Atmospheric Transport Modelling for dispersion conditions after the DPRK 2017 nuclear test and the origin of regional xenon detections
      T2.4-P14 Atmospheric transport study of Japan noble gas systems
      T2.4-P15 Backward atmpspheric transport modelling coincidence localization of single sources and repeating emitters
      T2.4-P16 Characterization and evolution of global Xe background between 2016 and 2018
      T2.4-P17 CTBTО IDC data and products use in case of elevated levels of atmospheric beta activity in Bulgaria
      T2.4-P18 Development of Compact Xenon Adsorption System for Medical Radioisotope Production Facilities to Mitigate Global Radioxenon Background
      T2.4-P19 Devices to Reduce Emission of Radioactive Noble Gases via Hydrogen
      T2.4-P20 ECMWF data sets as input for the ATM FLEXPART prepared by a new version of the flex_extract tool
      T2.4-P21 Establishment of the National Baseline Using Data from IDC
      T2.4-P22 Estimation of the CTBT-Relevant Radionuclides Sources by ensemble Adjoint Atmospheric Transport modeling
      T2.4-P23 Estimation of xenon background for the IMS stations located in the Pacific Ocean
      T2.4-P24 Evaluating different alternative sites for an IMS stations
      T2.4-P25 Fractional Release of Argon from Activated Rocks and Powders
      T2.4-P26 Global Observations of radioiodine by the CTBT International Monitoring System
      T2.4-P27 Global radioxenon emission inventory for 2014 by normal operational releases from nuclear power plants and medical isotope production facilities
      T2.4-P28 Hemispheric atmospheric dispersion analysis of radionuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant
      T2.4-P29 How the UK National Data Centre utilises Stack monitoring data in support of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty
      T2.4-P30 Impact of CRL shutdown on CTBTO North-American noble gas stations
      T2.4-P31 Impacts of the Thorium-based Nuclear Fuels to the CTBTO Monitoring System
      T2.4-P32 Impacts of Tropical Climate on Radioactivity Measurement in Particles Collected at the Recently Certified RN65, Thailand
      T2.4-P33 Inhalation Dose Assessment of 212Pb and 7Be using Data of IMS RN65
      T2.4-P34 Introducing geomechanics and discrete fracture capabilities into STOMP to understand the first 10-100m of UNE signal transport.
      T2.4-P35 Inverse modelling applied to the Xe-133 background
      T2.4-P36 Investigation of emission of 37Ar from all nuclear research reactors worldwide
      T2.4-P37 Investigation of specific historical radioxenon background detections in the IMS
      T2.4-P38 Isotopic signature of radioargon released from the FRM-II reactor
      T2.4-P39 Magmas in nuclear cavities and their potential effects on the source term and its migration
      T2.4-P40 Measurement of radioargon and radioxenon in soil gas
      T2.4-P42 Model-based assessment of radionuclide migration in the geosphere by using different type of data - Northern Bulgaria case study
      T2.4-P43 Nb-95 and Zr-95 Background from IMS particles stations
      T2.4-P44 Noble gas signature adsorption in a UNE – bridging the gap between laboratory and field scale models
      T2.4-P45 Plants as Indicators of Radioactive Contamination at Nuclear Test Sites
      T2.4-P46 Progress over 2014 baseline on the match between observations and simulations of radioxenon concentrations at IMS stations
      T2.4-P47 Radioactive-xenon background information from International monitoring system for CTBT verification purpose
      T2.4-P48 Radioactivity characteristics of atmospheric aerosol samples in Guangzhou
      T2.4-P49 Radionuclides Monitoring along the Brazilian Coast
      T2.4-P50 Revisiting Assessment of Radioactive Gases Emanated in the Storage Area of Spent Nuclear Fuel at BN-350 Reactor
      T2.4-P51 Risk estimates migration of radionuclides after flooded Klivazh facility
      T2.4-P52 Statistical Study of the Atmospheric Background and Anomalous Values of the Radioxenon Activity Concentrations at some IMS Stations
      T2.4-P53 Tajikistan and CTBTO
      T2.4-P54 The characteristic release of noble gases from an underground nuclear explosion
      T2.4-P55 The Rapid Radionuclide Isotopic Ratio Determination Technique to Assess Nuclear Event Debris
      T2.4-P56 Trends in worldwide background of CTBT-relevant xenon isotopes based on IMS data
      T2.4-P57 Validation study of the Flexpart-WRF model with episodes of Xe-133 releases and detections in Europe

      Topic T2.5 Historical Data from Nuclear Test Monitoring
      T2.5-P1 A catalogue of nuclear test explosions recorded by Slovak National Network of Seismic Stations
      T2.5-P2 A Comprehensive Central Asia Seismological Bulletin
      T2.5-P3 Detectability of the UNE Wigwam by radionuclide stations of today’s IMS
      T2.5-P4 Digitization of Soviet Era Peaceful Nuclear Explosion Seismograms From Regional Stations
      T2.5-P6 Discrimination of Nuclear Explosions and Earthquakes at Regional Distances for the Lop Nor Test Site According to the KNET Network Data
      T2.5-P8 New Stage of Works on Nuclear Explosions Historical Records Digitization
      T2.5-P9 Nuclear Test Monitoring History in the North-East of the USSR
      T2.5-P12 Waveforms From Nuclear Explosions (WFNE)

      Topic T3.2 Laboratories Including Mobile and Field Based Facilities
      T3.2-P1 Accuracy of particulate sample analysis with a BEGe detector
      T3.2-P2 Developing a laboratory-based beta-gamma coincidence detection system
      T3.2-P3 Efficiency improvement of gamma-spectroscopy on environmental sample
      T3.2-P4 Efficiency of ion exchange columns for precipitation sampling
      T3.2-P5 Further development of the SAUNA-FIELD system for rapid deployment and improved operation.
      T3.2-P6 Quality assurance for the OSI Field Radionuclide Laboratory
      T3.2-P7 Radioxenon spiked air for field testing
      T3.2-P9 Status and results of Xenon Proficiency Test Exercises

      Topic T3.3 Remote Sensing, Satellite Imagery and Data Acquisition Platforms
      T3.3-P1 A New Method to Identifying Radioactivity in the Region of Infrared
      T3.3-P2 An Integrated GIS-Remote Sensing based Application of Analytical Hierarchy Process and Socio-demographic Aspect to Landslide Susceptibility Mapping at Rawalakot, Azad Jammu Kashmir, Pakistan.
      T3.3-P3 Application of Weather Radar Data for Volcanic Ash Dispersion of Anak Krakatau Eruption on 27 December 2018
      T3.3-P4 Applying Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery Analysis to Monitor and Verify Front-end Uranium Production
      T3.3-P5 Comparison of Satellite Earth Observation and Seimic data to analysis the effect of Nuclear Tests in 2017 North Korea.
      T3.3-P6 Deployment of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology for nuclear disarmament: A responsible innovation perspective
      T3.3-P7 Design and construction of an OSI airborne techniques simulator
      T3.3-P8 Improvements to the Standard Station Interface (SSI) software: State of Health and Authentication with ECDSA
      T3.3-P9 Optimizing the OSI Operation by Employing Drone Mounted Aerial Gamma Monitoring System
      T3.3-P10 Potential Ways for Optimization of Multispectral including Infrared (MSIR) Imaging for On-Site Inspection (OSI)
      T3.3-P11 Several key COTS equipments’ potential application to CTBTO OSI
      T3.3-P12 The Significance of Publicly Available Commercial Satellite Imagery for Monitoring Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation and Natural Disasters.

      Topic T3.4 Augmented Reality and Fusion of Data from Different Monitoring Technologies
      T3.4-P1 Data Fusion of Electromagnetic and Infrasound Measurements
      T3.4-P2 Detection and interpretation of explosive events by seismic and infrasound networks of Ukraine
      T3.4-P3 Detection and Location of an Earthquake Using Seismic, Infrasound and Hydroacoustic Data: A Case Study of Botswana
      T3.4-P4 Introducing m-Science Systems for Engaging Broader Community to the Needs of Nuclear Test Monitoring and Verification
      T3.4-P5 National Seismic Network of Samoa
      T3.4-P6 Seismo-Acoustic Study in Israel

      Topic T4.1 Network Optimization
      T4.1-P1 Troubleshooting Indonesian CTBTO stations
      T4.1-P2 Bulgarian NDC and network – new achievements and challenges
      T4.1-P3 Challenges of solving environmental problems to optimize data availability at the RN13 Station
      T4.1-P4 Comparison of weather data of RN61 station with data of two stations belonging to "Weather Underground" system and suggestions for improvement of current RN61 meteorological observations
      T4.1-P33 Next Generation Power Systems of CTBTO’s International Monitoring System (IMS)
      T4.1-P5 Cyber security Analysis on Satellite Network Vulnerability
      T4.1-P6 Designing the Control System for Air Conditioning and Dehumidifier to Optimize the Performance of Gamma Spectrometer at RN42 Station
      T4.1-P7 Fair Spectral Access in Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networks
      T4.1-P8 Free-Space-Optical communication as back up in case of non functioning of the GCI-III.
      T4.1-P9 Geodynamic network of seismic and volcanic monitoring OVSICORI-UNA a possibility of data integration with the Costa Rica National Data Center (NDC-CR)
      T4.1-P10 Geography information system capabilities: GeoEvent method to improve network optimization of CTBTO Operation data
      T4.1-P11 Ghana's experience in the establishment of a national digital seismic network observatory
      T4.1-P13 Implementation of a QA/QC programme for noble gas monitoring in the IMS network
      T4.1-P14 Implementing Process Oriented Knowledge Management: Lessons learned from an application in the OPCW
      T4.1-P15 IMS Station Management in Argentina
      T4.1-P16 Infrasound Detection Capability Improvement on Noise Reduction System
      T4.1-P17 Key factors that improved Data Availability at IMS RN stations
      T4.1-P18 Maintenance visit to radionuclide station FJP26 and auxiliary seismic station AS031/MSVF
      T4.1-P19 Major upgrade at IS41 Villa Florida, Paraguay
      T4.1-P20 New High Quality VBB Borehole Sensor Upgrades and Additional Atmospheric Sensors at Global Seismographic Network (GSN) Stations
      T4.1-P21 Optimizing Logistics Performance in the Pre-mortem Conditions of Global Verification Regime’s Logistics Activities.
      T4.1-P22 Overview of the seismic observation network of the Ukrainian National Data Center
      T4.1-P23 Parallel Processing in the GDMS Analysis Pipeline
      T4.1-P24 Power Quality and Generator Monitoring
      T4.1-P25 Real-Time Earthquake Monitoring at LSZ 119 in Zambia
      T4.1-P26 Redesign and Overhauling of the AS001/CFA Station
      T4.1-P27 Seismic station control
      T4.1-P28 Site selection for seismic Broadband station installation (CGS seismic BB National Network)
      T4.1-P29 The CTBTO Radionuclide Monitoring Station PHP52: Current Status and Future Strategies for Performance Optimization for Treaty Verification and Scientific Research
      T4.1-P31 The New Botswana Seismological Network (BSN): Developments in detection of seismic events in Southern Africa and beyond
      T4.1-P32 Upgrading of PS11 and establishment of IS12 as well as the National Data Centre of Bangui Project in Central African Republic

      Topic T4.3 Enabling Technologies
      T4.3-P1 A system for radiometry monitoring at IMS Radionuclide Station
      T4.3-P2 CTBTO Link to the ISC Database
      T4.3-P3 CTBTO's Seismic Data Products
      T4.3-P4 Development of Information Technologies at Kazakhstan National Data Centre (KNDC) in support of the CTBTO
      T4.3-P5 Expanding National Data Centres to provide High Performance Computing (HPC)
      T4.3-P6 Improved Method for the Testing and Verification of the Sierra Instruments 620S Mass Flow Meter
      T4.3-P7 Low cost transmission and State of Health for NDC's
      T4.3-P8 MQTT Protocol for SOH monitoring at Colombian Geological Survey
      T4.3-P9 NDC in the Cloud: Example of performing seismic processing in the cloud
      T4.3-P10 Quantifying the State of Health of a detection system remotely with LabPulse
      T4.3-P11 Temporary Installation of Seismo Wave MB3d with Raspberry Pi at Nanyang Technological University

      Topic T4.4 Performance of the Full Verification System
      T4.4-P1 A framework for performance optimization
      T4.4-P2 An Assessment of XSEL Bulletin as Produced through the Cross Correlation Technique
      T4.4-P3 Build up Exercises to Validate OSI Capability Development
      T4.4-P4 Data Availability and Quality at IMS Stations and Local Networks
      T4.4-P5 Effective Management of OSI Equipment and Software
      T4.4-P6 High-density configuration experiment of noble gas measurement systems in Japan
      T4.4-P7 National Data Centre Preparedness Exercise 2017 - Exploring real IMS data for casual connections
      T4.4-P8 Quality assessment of REB through comparison with NEIC bulletin for the month of September 2018
      T4.4-P9 Quantifying uncertainties and confidence level in ATM simulations
      T4.4-P10 Quantifying uncertainties in the Atmospheric Modelling (ATM) simulations resulting from different emission time resolution
      T4.4-P11 Successes in improving Data Availability to RN station with long term issues
      T4.4-P12 The Contribution of periodic testing and evaluation to the improvement of performance of the CTBT Verification System
      T4.4-P13 The CTBTO/PTS Operations Centre
      T4.4-P14 The Role of Quality Assurance to Improve the Performance of Nuclear Research

      Topic T5.1 Science in Policy Discussions and Lessons Learned from Other Arms Control Agreements and Arrangements
      T5.1-P1 An Evaluation of Environment and Humanitarian Consequences of Nuclear Tests in French Polynesia
      T5.1-P2 Computer-Simulated Nuclear Tests and the CTBT: Catalyst for Entry-Into-Force (EIF) or Impediment?
      T5.1-P3 CTBT Entry into Force: Breaking the Stalemate
      T5.1-P4 Leveraging the CTBT's verification provisions for promoting entry-into-force
      T5.1-P5 On-Site Inspection: A Multidimensional Example of Science Diplomacy
      T5.1-P6 Strengthening the NPT through CTBT entry-into-force: is there a link between the Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty and the Non-Proliferation Treaty?
      T5.1-P7 Testing Customs: the CTBT and Customary International Law
      T5.1-P8 The Development of Arms Control Agreements and Arrangements
      T5.1-P9 Toward a Non-Nuclear World: The NPT Regime – Nuclear Disarmament and the Challenge of a WMDFZ in the Middle East
      T5.1-P10 Turning Science Into Policy: Lessons from Global Security Frameworks and Treaties

      Topic T5.3 Capacity Building, Education and Public Awareness
      T5.3-P1 20 Years of Participations in CTBTO activities
      T5.3-P2 Awareness activities related to CTBT undertaken by HANEA
      T5.3-P3 Awareness of the Radionuclide Monitoring Technology for Myanmar’s students
      T5.3-P4 Capacity Building and Public Awareness Creation by National Data Centre in Ghana, West Africa
      T5.3-P5 Capacity Building for Expertise for Non-Proleiferation Rules and Instrument
      T5.3-P6 Capacity Building in Central Asia to Monitor the CTBT
      T5.3-P7 Capacity Building System National Data Centre Suriname
      T5.3-P8 Challenges and Prospects for CTBT in Pakistan
      T5.3-P9 Challenges to innovative solutions, transparency and application of verification technologies in Non- Signatory, Annex 2 states in the modern era.
      T5.3-P10 Cloud platform as instrument to enhance capabilities of remote users (data processing and training)
      T5.3-P11 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and the Non-Proliferation Regime
      T5.3-P12 Contending the Security Dilemma: Policy and Science
      T5.3-P13 CTBT Acceptance, A Counterintuitive Approach to the CTBT
      T5.3-P14 CTBT and Evolving Nuclear Order
      T5.3-P15 CTBT Enforcement
      T5.3-P16 CTBT the next global agenda toward peaceful planet
      T5.3-P17 CTBT-SDGs-Innovation-Challenge: Building resilient communities through CTBT science information sharing
      T5.3-P18 CTBTO Educational Programme and Sustainable Development Goal 5 in Nigeria
      T5.3-P19 CTBTORS the global heroes of sustainability: A collaborative online game for schools and citizens
      T5.3-P20 Curriculum Development on CTBTO Verification Regime
      T5.3-P21 Deploying a Radionuclide Monitoring Station in Kazakhstan
      T5.3-P22 Engaging Young Generation: The Case of Ural Federal University in Russia
      T5.3-P24 Equipping the Next Generation of Nuclear Explosion Watchers - CTBT Educational Materials a Useful Resource
      T5.3-P25 Establishment of an academic and research network under the CTBTO umbrella
      T5.3-P26 Estimation of Ionizing Radiation Risk and their Effects as a Method of Approach to Data Products
      T5.3-P27 Evidence based proposition to make IMS and IDC data available for use through climate change education in the context of education for sustainable development, promoting peace and climate Change Resilience in Africa.
      T5.3-P28 Extended-NDC-in-a-Box experience at the Israel National Data Center
      T5.3-P29 Feminist Perspective on Disarmament
      T5.3-P30 Goal 9. Built resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation.
      T5.3-P31 How the CTBTO Activities increases and develops the NDCs technical staffs Knowledge, experiences and skills, JO-NDC as an example
      T5.3-P32 Implementation of Capacity Development and Public Awareness for CTBT verification regime in Myanmar
      T5.3-P33 Implementation of Research and Development Obligations of the Republic of Kazakhstan on CTBT
      T5.3-P34 In a Hope of Non Nuclear World
      T5.3-P35 Inclusive approaches and multi levels team building impacts on increasing the IMS and NDC facilities availabilities: a case study of Senegal
      T5.3-P36 Incresing Role of the CTBT
      T5.3-P37 Internal Management Software for Station Managers
      T5.3-P38 International Outreach and Training on the Regional Seismic Travel Time (RSTT) method
      T5.3-P39 It is not about the "know-how", it is about "why" and "how-to" spread the knowledge.
      T5.3-P40 KAIST NEREC for developing human capital for global nuclear nonproliferation
      T5.3-P41 Make CTBT Known to the Young, the Public, the Media and the Decision-makers
      T5.3-P42 Monitoring Compliance with the CTBT – Contributions by the German NDC
      T5.3-P43 Myanma's Activities for Nuclear Weapons free World
      T5.3-P44 National Data Centre's Training Cycle Approach
      T5.3-P45 NDC Establishment and Operation
      T5.3-P46 NNRA Information Dissemination Strategies
      T5.3-P48 Plan to develop CTBTO network in Vietnam
      T5.3-P50 Promoting Civil and Scientific Applications of International Monitoring System (IMS) Data and Spin-offs
      T5.3-P51 Promoting the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) through Stakeholder Engagement Programmes: Malaysia’s Experience
      T5.3-P52 Proposal for a Clean and Sustainable Energy Policy in Bolivia
      T5.3-P53 Public awareness and safety
      T5.3-P54 Raising Awareness about the relationship between the CTBT and TPNW
      T5.3-P55 Raising awareness of nuclear nonproliferation through the Capacity Building System (CBS) in Iraq NDC
      T5.3-P56 Raising Public Awareness of the CTBT: Measuring Success, Addressing Challenges
      T5.3-P57 Regional Training Centre- South African perspective
      T5.3-P58 Role of CTBT in order to achieve SDG
      T5.3-P59 Saving lives through Third Stream activities and fulfilling CTBT objectives
      T5.3-P60 Stations Network of the Cuban Seismological Service
      T5.3-P61 Strengthening Nonproliferation Norms in South Asia
      T5.3-P62 Technical support provided to States Parties and its impact On process of promoting ratification of Treaty
      T5.3-P63 The Application of International Monitoring System Data (IMS) and International Data Centre (IDC) Products at the Jordanian National Data Centre
      T5.3-P64 The CTBT’s Relevance to the SDGs: A Virtual Education Platform for Capacity-Building
      T5.3-P65 The education and public awareness of the CTBT through web application Mexico
      T5.3-P66 The effect of art students’ awareness of nuclear weapons on their artistry.
      T5.3-P68 The importance of promoting the CTBT locally and the benefits of doing so
      T5.3-P69 The Italian CTBTO CNF: readiness test status
      T5.3-P70 The Necessity of Academia-Industry-Political for Nuclear Awareness
      T5.3-P71 The Role Media Can Play in Raising Awareness of the CTBTO Goals
      T5.3-P72 The role of Member States in providing insight into the substance of the CTBT: the linkage between ARN and the local community
      T5.3-P73 The use and importance of IDC products at the NDC Suriname
      T5.3-P74 The Youth of 2019: A Different Voice
      T5.3-P75 Toward an Open Access, On-line Educational Resource for Nuclear Weapons and Arms Control Awareness and Education: Insights and Lessons from Learning Analytics
      T5.3-P76 Travelling School
      T5.3-P77 Two Courses on Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Political, Legal and Technical Aspects’ and Intensive Policy Course on "Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty: Political, Legal and Technical Aspects"
      T5.3-P78 UGM as The Indonesia's Potential for CTBT Science and Technology Education, Research, and Development
      T5.3-P79 Understanding of Nuclear-Weapons-Related Issues Among Practitioners in Indonesia
      T5.3-P80 Utilisation of IMS data for better monitoring of nuclear objects in Lithuania and adjacent countries
      T5.3-P81 Verification Regime Versus Sustainable Development Goals: How Can Ghana Benefit From The Radionuclide Technology In Achieving Sustainable Development Goals
      T5.3-P82 Wake up Pakistan!
      T5.3-P83 West African Countries Collaborate on the Promotion of Joint Research Projects and CTBT Academic Currucila
      T5.3-P84 Why Young People Win

    • T4.4 Performance of the Full Verification System Rittersaal (Hofburg)



      • 44
        3rd ATM Challenge 2019

        Two ATM challenges were successfully performed in 2015 and 2016. However, they did not address the more practical aspect of estimating radioxenon background at selected IMS stations. This estimation is needed for calibration and performance assessment of the verification system as described in the Treaty. Estimating the radioxenon background is the main goal of the 3rd ATM Challenge. In the frame of multi-model ensemble modelling a training approach will be used to define the optimal set of ensemble members, specific to each station. Xe-133 stack emission data for the time period June - November 2014 from the IRE (Belgium) and CRL (Canada) radiopharmaceutical plants will be used as well as estimates for nuclear power plants and research reactors. The annual emissions from the Mallinckrodt facility (The Netherlands), the NIIAR facility (Russia) and the Karpov Institute (Russia) will also be considered to refine predictions. The ultimate goal of the atmospheric transport modelling exercise is to provide an ensemble analysis of radioxenon background levels at IMS stations frequently impacted by industrial emissions. The presentation will deal with the design and development of the exercise scenario. First results will be shown if already available.

        Speaker: Christian Maurer (Central Institution for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG))
      • 45
        International Monitoring System's Detection and Screening Capability in Australia

        The completeness and accuracy of the CTBT Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) is assessed in the Australian region through comparison with a local bulletin. We compare the REB to Australia’s National Earthquake Alerts Centre (NEAC) bulletin for all events in Australia between May 23rd and December 31st 2018. Australia is an intra-plate tectonic environment and as such experiences around 100 magnitude 3 earthquakes every year. The continent is also home to a multitude of mining facilities and NEAC’s seismologists locate mining blast events daily and, where possible, confirm these events with local mines. The bulletins are compared to quantitatively show the IMS performance in a setting with sparse station coverage; the benefits of using 3D travel times in Australia and how well the REB events are screened. In addition the contribution of the NET-VISA bulletin to the REB is examined. Both feedback and suggestions are provided, not only on the performance improvement but also on the NET-VISA’s prior probability distribution functions.

        Speaker: Tanja Pejic (Geoscience Australia)
      • 46
        Near real-time monitoring of the IMS event detection capability

        The primary seismic network of the International Monitoring System (IMS) forms the backbone of the CTBT verification regime. The average event detection capability of the primary seismic network is estimated to be within the range mb 3.1 to 3.4 for the northern hemisphere, and between mb 3.4 and 3.7 for the southern hemisphere. However, it is understood that the detection threshold can vary significantly with time during situations such as high station noise levels, large earthquakes or outages of key stations. The continuous threshold monitoring method was developed to address the temporal and spatial variability in network detection capability, and an operational implementation has been running at the International Data Center for several years. The current system provides hourly averaged estimates of the three-station detection capability, as well as the point-wise maxima (worst-case) for each hour. Recent advances in computer technology has allowed for increased temporal and spatial resolution in the calculations, as well as new graphical presentation options of capability estimates. Additionally, the steadily increasing IDC event database is used to obtain higher accuracy and improved uncertainty estimates. We will in this presentation demonstrate new approaches and applications of the threshold monitoring method for continuous assessment of IMS performance.

        Speaker: Tormod Kværna (NORSAR)
    • T5.3 Capacity Building, Education and Public Awareness Forum (Hofburg)



      • 47
        CTBT and role of the CYG in the Korean Peace and denuclearisation process

        The nuclear crisis in the Korean peninsula is a long-standing problematic issue which constitutes a threat and challenge to global peace and security order.DPRK`s nuclear tests have demonstrated the increasing technical capacity of their nuclear weapons program and served as acts of provocation and conflict escalation.Conversely, the recent steps by DPRK to place a moratorium on nuclear testing and destroy a nuclear testing facility serve as confidence building measures which have helped the Inter-Korean peace process.However, these steps have not been sufficient to overcome suspicions from the USA or the international community, nor to free up the blocks in the DPRK-USA process.Further progress by DPRK to verifiably proscribe further nuclear testing would be of enormous benefit to the diplomatic processes, and serve as incremental steps towards full denuclearisation.The CTBT and CTBTO can play important roles in this process, possibly even resulting in DPRK signing the treaty, so long as there is public and international support for such incremental measures as well as incentives for DPRK to join the CTBT.A helpful factor will be to engage youth in public promotion of the role of the CTBT in the Korean peace process. The CTBTO Youth Group could help in this regard.

        Speaker: Marzhan Nurzhan (Abolition 2000 Youth Network)
      • 48
        Integration women technicians in CTBTO

        Nowadays the struggle for feminism is becoming increasingly important. Despite the fact that much has already been achieved in this case, in many areas it is extremely rare to meet women. This is not due to the reluctance of women to occupy certain positions, but the obstacles raised by society for a long time, prejudices that still live in the minds of many people.It is worth noting that this is an erroneous model of behavior, because for a comprehensive solution of problems the view of both men and women is necessary. It has been scientifically proven that their thinking is fundamentally different from each other, so why not to take this fact into service to achieve more advanced objectives, including in terms of the global transformation of our world, reflected in the UN sustainable development goals. In our research, we touch upon two goals : Quality education (goal 4) and Gender quality (goal 5). We will try to create a training program on the subject of the radionuclide nuclear test verification method. The results of the research work will help us to understand which distinctive features of this program will contribute to better and more effective learning of female representatives.

        Speaker: Sofya Bukhalina (National Research Nuclear University MEPhI)
      • 49
        NRNU MEPhI as an educational site for relevant CTBTO problems solving.

        The abstract examines the contribution of NRNU MEPhI to the work of the CTBTO Youth Group and the potential for further cooperation. MEPhI students have been active participants in various activities of the Youth Group since its foundation: The First International Conference of the CTBTO Youth Group was held on the basis of MEPhI in October 2017. Participants of the Youth Group from MEPhI were active during the CTBT Science Diplomacy Symposium in May 2018 and the GEM-Youth International Conference in August 2018. Today MEPhI is a leading university that trains specialists to work with nuclear technologies. The Institute of Nuclear Physics and Engineering, Institute for Laser and Plasma Technologies, Institute of Cyber Intelligence Systems, Institute of Physical and Technical Intellectual Systems, and Institute of Engineering Physics for Biomedicine provide the main areas of technical education in which MEPhI has long conducted educational programs to train specialists for the IAEA. In addition, much work is being done on training in the field of scientific and technical cooperation on the basis of the Institute of International Relations. This experience can be actively and effectively applied in the training of young professionals for the benefit of the CTBTO.

        Speaker: Andrei Nesterenko (NRNU MEPhI)
    • T1.1 Atmospheric Dynamics Forum (Hofburg)



      • 50
        Recording of internal gravity waves and infrasound waves from the warm and cold fronts in Moscow region

        The results of recording of internal gravity waves and infrasound waves from the warm and cold fronts associated with the atmospheric storm passing through Moscow on May 29, 2017 are presented. The waves were recorded by a network of 4 microbarographs IFA-MGU-MSR- ZNS located in Moscow and Moscow region. It was obtained the temporal changes in the characteristics of IGWs and infrasound waves such as coherence, direction of propagation,phase velocities, characteristic periods and frequency spectra with the passage of warm and cold fronts through the network.

        Speaker: Elena Golikova (A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences)
      • 51
        Remote monitoring volcanic eruptions using IMS infrasound data

        The European Research Infrastructure project ARISE demonstrated that infrasound is an efficient method for remote volcano monitoring up to distances of several thousand kilometers. Near field infrasound observations can be used to reconstruct in detail the eruptive chronology and to provide near-real time notification of ongoing activity to civil protection authorities. At larger distances recent work showed that infrasound parameters could constraint the source strength and eruptive chronology. Such parameters are useful to model the ash plume dispersion which is strongly controlled by source term information that is often missing, especially for volcanic eruptions from poorly instrumented volcanoes. ARISE project perspective is to cover this gap, providing near-real time information on the source terms to the Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC). The prototype system Volcanic Information System (VIS) was recently integrated in the virtual Data Exploitation Centre (vDEC) of CTBTO and first tested using remote infrasound observations from Etna. In order to consolidate the notifications, confidence levels are calculated using accurate atmosphere specifications. Once validated, VIS is planned to further be evaluated by considering other regions worldwide.

        Speaker: Alexis Le Pichon (CEA/CENTRE Ile-de-France)
    • T2.4 Atmospheric and Subsurface Radionuclide Background and Dispersion Rittersaal (Hofburg)



      • 52
        The detection of Ar-39 above UNEs decades later as a signature

        During the conduct of the Underground Nuclear Explosion Signatures Experiment (UNESE), which involved the injection of Ar-37 into UNE chimneys at the Nevada National Security Site, we detected the unanticipated presence of Ar-39 in gas samples taken from the shallow (0 – few m deep) subsurface. This long-lived UNE observable was present in all of our measurements in the vicinity of UNE sites, spanning different geologies, vertical- and horizontal-emplacement scenarios, and yields less than 20 kt. This implies that the detectability of UNEs by radionuclides at the surface is likely much longer than previously thought. The detections of Ar-39 and Ar-37 rely on low-background, internal-source proportional counters built at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We discuss the measurements, natural backgrounds, and implications.

        Speaker: Brian Milbrath (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)
      • 53
        Underground Nuclear Explosion Signatures Experiment (UNESE) Phase 2: Gas migration studies in a tunnel test location

        Phase 2 of the Underground Nuclear Explosion Signatures Experiment (UNESE) included the injection of tracer gases into the chimney of a historic horizontally-emplaced nuclear test at the Nevada National Security Site. The purpose of these injections was to observe the migration of gases from the chimney to the adjacent tunnel complex and their migration within the surrounding geology. Two tracer injections occurred – one of a single stable tracer gas (freon) in January of 2018, and a second of two radioactive tracers, Ar-37 and Xe-127, and the stable tracer sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) in June 2018. Measurements were made of gas collected from multiple locations within the tunnel and two locations were monitored semi-continuously using gamma-ray detectors to measure gas recirculated from the measurement points. Samples were also collected at various depths within an adjacent borehole that was drilled from the surface to emplacement level in May and June 2018. The injections, subsequent monitoring and sample collection, and results will be presented and discussed.

        Speaker: Christine Johnson (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)
    • T5.1 Science in Policy Discussions and Lessons Learned from Other Arms Control Agreements and Arrangements Festsaal (Hofburg)



      • 54
        Chemistry and Diplomacy: The Provision of Scientific Advice for Disarmament and Non-Proliferation Treaty Organisations

        Decision makers serving in policymaking organs of international arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation instruments often consider and review information with significant scientific underpinning. This includes approval of lists of new inspection equipment; approving the addition of scientific content for validated databases; budgeting and/or resource allocation for relevant scientific research; and/or reviewing analytical results from inspections or investigations of non-compliance. Engagement with scientific communities helps to ensure that an organisation remains abreast of developments in science and technology, and can continue to develop capabilities that enhance operational effectiveness. At the technical level this interaction proceeds through running experiments, analyzing data and speaking in scientific jargon – yet the same key technical information must also be conveyed to decision makers, many of whom have no formal scientific training, but require adequate levels of scientific literacy to carry out their duties. The connection of science to policy is commonly facilitated through a scientific advisory mechanism which sits at an interface between science and international diplomacy. Taking the Chemical Weapons Convention as an example, we will discuss challenges, successes and lessons learned from the provision of scientific advice to disarmament treaty policymakers facing a variety of routine and non-routine issues in treaty implementation.

        Speaker: Jonathan Forman (Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons)
      • 55
        Comparative Assessment of CTBT with International Arms Control and Disarmament Treaties: Strengths and Limitations of Science in Enforcement and Addressing Security Driven Actions

        In a world transiting through a changing global order with ongoing geopolitical realignments and reasserting behavior of certain states ,nuclear weapons and delivery system appear to be becoming relevant currency of national and cooperative power by certain states. Citing this influx in security environments, where some states in past undertook demonstration of nuclear capability, while some have threatened to modernize its forces, certain states indicated reserving the prerogative to test further systems. The central significance of security environment and centrality of threat perceptions to develop and test nuclear capabilities, there remains a need to critically analyze the emphasis on science driven approaches in strengthening efficacy of non-proliferation treaties such as CTBT. This paper also takes a comparative analysis of other treaties, and in understanding the role of scientific and non-scientific factors that rendered those treaties effective. It also takes a look at non-scientific elements that rendered other international non-proliferation, disarmament and arms control treaties effective vis-a-vis others. This paper analyzes strengths of science driven mechanisms, role of security environment-driven factors that challenge non-proliferation and disarmament treaties along with "taboo" of certain weapon systems which have rendered their use unacceptable. It also examines factors that strengthened and non-proliferation treaties durable.

        Speaker: Afeera Firdous (Center for International Strategic Studies Islamabad)
    • 56
      Coffee Break
    • T1.1 Atmospheric Dynamics Forum (Hofburg)



      • 57
        Temperature and wind atmospheric lidars as tools for the validation of infrasound propagation models

        Rayleigh temperature and Doppler wind lidars are powerful instruments to monitor the vertical profile of atmospheric parameters up to the upper mesosphere. Such instruments are operated routinely at Haute-Provence Observatory (OHP) in South-East France and at Maïdo Observatory in Reunion Island in the frame of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) and they are included in the ARISE (Atmospheric dynamics Research InfraStructure in Europe) project. They allow to monitor the long-term evolution of the middle atmosphere in relation with global climate change and to study the role of atmospheric waves (gravity waves, planetary waves, sudden stratospheric warmings) in the variability of this region at various scales. Using the lidar profiles of wind and temperature, it is possible to reconstruct the vertical profile of effective sound velocity and to compare it with the prediction of infrasound propagation simulations using Numerical Weather Prediction models. The colocation of temperature and wind lidars and microbarometer arrays at OHP and Maïdo ARISE sites offers a great opportunity to evaluate the added value of such lidars for the interpretation of infrasound detection.

        Speaker: Alain Hauchecorne (Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS))
      • 58
        The Effect of Atmospheric Boundary Layer on the Detected Radionuclides in Kuwait

        The atmospheric planetary boundary layer (ABL) plays a major role in the detected radionuclides concentrations at the ground level; it can describe the dynamic and the behavior of the air movement in the region of interest. In this work, data collected from the CTBTO/IMS RN40 station for the years 2013-2018 along with the measurements of the upper air temperature using MTP-5H microwave temperature profiler were used to study the influence of Kuwait ABL on the concentrations of Be-7 as a natural and Cs-137 as an anthropogenic radionuclides in atmosphere. Results showed that the height and the frequencies of the formation of the surface temperature inversion were linked with the high concentrations of both radionuclides detected in Kuwait.

        Speaker: Mufreh Al-Rashidi (Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR))
      • 59
        Uncertainties in Numerical Weather Forecasting Models and infrasound simulations as observed by the ARISE project

        The middle and upper atmosphere is a highly variable environment at subseasonal time scales. This variability influences the general atmospheric circulation especially through the propagation and breaking of planetary and gravity waves in the stratosphere and mesosphere. The ARISE (Atmospheric dynamics Research InfraStructure in Europe) project integrates complementary instruments such as infrasound stations of the International Monitoring System developed for the verification of the Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban-treaty, lidar and radar networks and satellites. One main objective is to determine the origin of the uncertainties in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models, such as the operational analyses distributed by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) used for infrasound propagation modeling. It is shown that the variability from tropical convection, wind over mountains, stratospheric warming events and gravity wave activity strongly contribute to the uncertainties. The different scales of the disturbances and their seasonal evolution are studied. Significant differences in the uncertainties are observed in regions that are subject to different conditions, depending on wave activity. The ARISE perspective is to provide new data sets for model assessment, assimilation in medium range weather prediction models and in operational infrasound simulations.

        Speaker: Elisabeth Blanc (Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA))
    • T3.2 Laboratories Including Mobile and Field Based Facilities Rittersaal (Hofburg)



      • 60
        Investigations of the characteristics of installation for the measurement of low activities of 37Ar based on the detection of liquid argon scintillation

        One of the most conclusive evidence of a violation of CTBT is the presence in the subsoil air of elevated concentrations of 37Ar radionuclide, which is formed in large quantities in the interaction of neutrons with calcium, which is part of rocks. Traditionally, to measure the activity of 37Ar, proportional gas counters are used, which are filled with a counting gas prepared from samples of argon with the addition of methane. Further reduction of the detection limit of 37Ar is limited by the difficulty of a significant increase of argon sample volume placed in a proportional counter. Installation for the detection of argon-37 low activities based on the liquid scintillation principle is being developed at the Radium Khlopin Institute under contract with CTBTO. The role of the scintillator in this installation is performed by the liquefied preparation of extracted from soil air argon itself. The use of liquefied argon samples allows to multiply the volume of the measured samples without increasing the size of the measuring cell and shields elements and allows to significantly reduce the detectable limits of 37Ar. Installation is currently being tested and the results are presented in this presentation.

        Speaker: Sergei Pakhomov (Khlopin Radium Institute of the "Rosatom" State Corp.)
      • 61
        More sensitive measurements that radionuclide laboratories can do for special studies

        Advanced gamma-spectrometry systems have potential for higher-sensitivity analysis of CTBT relevant radionuclides in IMS samples. These systems include sophisticated multi-detector configurations that are capable of coincidence measurements with Compton and cosmic rejection. They can provide detection sensitivity 2-4 orders of magnitude higher than conventional gamma-spectrometry used for IMS samples. Such systems could be utilized for the re-analysis of selected IMS samples, to provide more accurate measurements with lower uncertainty, improved isotopic ratios, and potentially detect radionuclides not detectable using station or laboratory systems. The advantages of these next-generation systems has been investigated by a collaboration between the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), host to USL16 and GBL15.

        Speaker: Ashley Davies (CTBTO)
      • 62
        Sample throughput improvements for the U.S. Noble Gas Laboratory

        As radioxenon samples are collected around the world at the CTBTO IMS stations, a subset of those are sent to radionuclide laboratories around the world for re-analysis. PNNL operates the U.S. Noble Gas Laboratory (US-NGL), which was certified in December of 2016. The laboratory currently has one certified detector, but there are potential scenarios where additional throughout is desired. Two examples of this desired throughout are when multiple samples arrive at once, such as during a Proficiency Test Exercise (PTE) or from an event at a station. Alternatively, if there was a calibration or PTE performed shortly before station samples, it is desirable to have a subset of pristine detectors with no additional backgrounds from the radioxenon spikes. We have installed a detector bank of four additional detectors for US-NGL. The gas handling system for these detectors has been optimized to minimize the dead volumes, allowing the detectors to meet the CTBTO requirement for transfer efficiency. The detectors have undergone initial testing and are in the process of being certified for operation. We present the detector calibration and gas handling mechanism for the new detector bank. Additionally, we present operational scenarios for the added sample throughput of the US-NGL.

        Speaker: Michael Foxe (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)
    • T5.1 Science in Policy Discussions and Lessons Learned from Other Arms Control Agreements and Arrangements Festsaal (Hofburg)



      • 63
        North Korea and the CTBT

        Conventional wisdom has long held that North Korea would quite likely be the most difficult case among the eight remaining states that must ratify the CTBT for it to enter into force. The recent personal involvement of the Presidents of the U.S., South Korea and North Korea may make this achievement less distant than previously believed. In view of North Korea’s stated willingness to give up its nuclear weapons, it would not be logical for it to refuse to join the CTBT and insist on preserving a right to test such weapons. At least signing the CTBT would be a logical and effective early step for North Korea, in what looks to be a long and difficult process to a broader political settlement. This could be accompanied by North Korea’s support for, and participation in, the activities of the CTBTO, including verification. Lessons from the negotiation of earlier arms control agreements, as well as from the cessation of the former Soviet Union’s nuclear testing program, can help guide the orderly and verifiable transition of North Korea to a Non-Nuclear Weapon State and party to the CTBT.

        Speaker: Edward Milton Ifft (Stanford University)
    • Panel Discussion: Science Diplomacy: Science Advisors and Arms Control Practice – Improving Policy Implementation Through Technical Expertise Festsaal (Hofburg)



      • 64
        Backgrounds, false negatives and false positives: dealing with RN detection in 2019

        Detection of relevant radionuclides in the International Monitoring System absent a nuclear test, and especially radioactive xenon isotopes, has been the subject of concern for over a decade. These relevant radionuclide detections are usually called "backgrounds," and they are unavoidable due to the peaceful production of radioactive isotopes and other manmade phenomena. However, how we deal with these detections has not been clearly understood. This presentation seeks to explain at a high level how the detection of backgrounds may lead to both false positive alarms and false negative results, if the detections are not understood and accounted for in some way. We will give several easy to grasp examples, as well as report on a detailed study of the false positive rate that could be seen if fission-based isotope production occurred in the United States.

        Speaker: Theodore Bowyer (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)
    • 65
      Poster Preview Session T2.4

      22 posters

    • T3.3 Remote Sensing, Satellite Imagery and Data Acquisition Platforms Rittersaal (Hofburg)



      • 66
        Continuous and Unattended Spectroscopic Operation and Analysis with the Mirion Data Analyst

        A number of applications benefit from continuous and repeated gamma ray spectral acquisition, analysis, and reporting. In these cases, important criteria include: no lapses in data acquisition during monitoring, full data analysis and reporting can be applied in real time, the spectra and results are stored for post analysis review, and notifications are available when concentration levels rise above predetermined limits. The Data Analyst is a small device designed to accommodate these needs and provide the flexibility needed to configure measurement, data collection, and data analysis for a variety of applications. Continuous acquisition is accomplished with novel software and hardware which allows for unattended acquisition, analysis, and storage of data over multiple measurement workflow definitions. Since multiple averaging times are allowed for a single data stream it is possible to attain swift reaction times in parallel with very low minimum detectable concentrations. The analysis protocol leverages existing Genie 2000 analysis algorithms and applies them in real time to each workflow as it completes an averaging interval. The device also accommodates the use of analog inputs, GPIO communication, GPS location, and either wired or wireless communications. The capabilities of the device as well as a number of applications will be discussed.

        Speaker: Jim Zickefoose (Mirion Technologies (Canberra) Inc.)
      • 67
        International Radiation Monitoring Information System (IRMIS)

        The Incident and Emergency Centre (IEC) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has developed a web application, the International Radiation Monitoring Information System (IRMIS) through which the Member States can share and visualize large quantities of radiation monitoring data (viz. gamma dose rate, isotope specific ground depositions and air concentrations). The geo-referenced radiation monitoring data maps produced by the IRMIS can assist Member States to take appropriate protective actions during an emergency. The IRMIS may be used to assist official Contact Points, designated under the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, in the decision-making process following a nuclear or radiological emergency irrespective of the cause.

        Speaker: Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay (IAEA)
    • 68
      Poster Preview Session T4.3

      9 posters

    • 69
      European Union - CTBTO Cooperation: Multilateralism at Work
    • 70
      Sponsored Reception
    • 71
      Panel Discussion: Getting the Non-Proliferation and Disarmament Architecture Back on Track

      Preceding: Key Introduction by Lord Desmond Henry Browne

    • 72
      Panel Discussion: Civil Applications: The Use of CTBT IMS Data in Support of Disaster Risk Mitigation
    • T1.2 Solid Earth Structure Rittersaal (Hofburg)



      Poster presenter attendance on: Thursday 27 June from 14:30 to 16:00

      • 73
        3-D seismic velocity model of the Eastern Mediterranean region using body-wave tomography

        The Israeli National Data Center monitors and characterises the seismicity of the Eastern Mediterranean region as part of its mandate with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty. The seismic velocity model is one of the factors that affects most the location accuracy. Three-­dimensional tomographic studies of the area have been conducted in the past, but are patchy with inhomogeneous resolution, due to limited data sets and irregular data quality. We developed a new, high-resolution body-wave velocity model of the Eastern Mediterranean region. Major efforts were applied into producing a high-quality body-wave traveltime dataset, essential in order to obtain a high-resolution velocity model. We gathered seismic data from local events, as well as from man-made explosions, mostly quarry blasts in Israel and Jordan. We used both Pg and Pn phases to constrain the crust and uppermost mantle. The work was done in the Regional Seismic Travel Time framework. Our velocity model will not only enhance the CTBT organisation's seismic location capabilities, it will also be of significant importance for earthquake monitoring in the region and for the Earthquake Early Warning System being implemented in Israel.

        Speaker: Lewis Schardong (Tel Aviv University)
      • 74
        Earthquake swarms and reactivation of seismicity associated with the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake in Nepal

        The earthquake activity of central Himalayas is monitored continuously since 1994 by the national seismic network of Nepal (NSC) comprising 21 seismic stations. Most of the recorded seismicity nucleates along the downdip-end of the locked fault segments of the Main Himalayan Thrust fault, the shallow dipping mega-thrust between Indian plate and Tibetan Plateau. After the April 25, 2015, Gorkha earthquake, more than 40,000 events were located within the study area and there were 30462 events with ML >= 2.3, including 7 events with ML >= 6.0, and one large aftershock with Mw 7.3 on May 12, 2015. There is no clear evidence of foreshocks or other pre-seismic patterns. In 2018, the seismicity rate in the ruptured area is still about 5 times higher than the background seismicity before the Gorkha Earthquake. The Gorkha earthquake is the first large Himalayan earthquake allowing a detailed analysis of its aftershocks and the associated relaxation processes. Several global reactivations and anomalous bursts of earthquakes, sometimes organized in clusters. Some of these clusters are located outside the rupture zone either in Nepal or on Tibetan. Most of them appear to be controlled by geological structural complexities of the Main Himalayan Thrust fault.

        Speaker: Lok Bijaya Adhikari (National Seismological Center)
      • 75
        Estimation of local seismic activity by deterministic hazard assessment. A case study in north-eastern of Azerbaijan

        Site-specific deterministic hazard assessment at respective locations of the north-eastern of Azerbaijan that provides estimates of amplification factor on local soil conditions was carried out. Topics of interest include moment magnitude, seismic energy, b-value, simulated earthquake scenario-based Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA), site effects, the rock site characterization and intensity. This is a large scale seismicity analysis for seismic source zone clarification and estimation of maximum earthquake magnitude. The earthquake catalogue from Republican Center of Seismological Survey (RCSS) at Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (ANAS) was used. Intensity distribution classifies the region into the highest hazard level with intensity value of 7 and over in the west part and also in the east of the area. The b-value result shows that the decrease is observed in the western part of the region and on some areas of the northern part which is an indication of higher stress in those areas. The very high PGA is scattered also in the western and eastern parts. It may have significant impact on engineering design, especially for critical facilities on those areas. Independently from the epicenter of scenario earthquakes, the low and very low PGA is scattered in the central part of the study area.

        Speaker: Gulam Babayev (Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences)
      • 76
        Revised local- and regional-scale velocity and attenuation models for Canada for improved earthquake/explosion location, magnitude and yield estimates

        The Canadian National Seismic Network (CNSN), covering one of the largest single-network areas worldwide, plays an important role in global nuclear explosion monitoring. As such, and in light of the recent CNSN refurbishment program, we present two national-scale models of local and regional velocity and regional frequency-dependent attenuation relations for 3-D crustal and upper mantle structure. We make significant advancements in Regional Seismic Travel Time (RSTT) tomography (Myers et al., 2010) for Canada using natural and mining-related seismic event data from the Canadian National Earthquake Data Base (NEDB) in addition to a newly-assembled ground truth database of locally and regionally recorded mining events and refraction explosions of known location, depth and timing. For the attenuation model, we use regional Lg amplitude--distance relations in narrow frequency bands in the range 0.5-16 Hz across various regions of Canada and systematically invert for frequency-dependent Q. Improved velocity and attenuation models are of multi-faceted interest to the nuclear explosion monitoring community as they have the potential of 1) reducing earthquake/explosion location errors through improved travel time predictions of regional and local phases, 2) improving explosive yield estimates and 3) reducing regional magnitude bias across adjacent geologic provinces.

        Speaker: Claire Perry (Natural Resources Canada)
      • 77
        Updates to the Regional Seismic Travel Time (RSTT) Tomography Model

        The Regional Seismic Travel Time (RSTT) tomography model has been developed to improve travel time predictions for regional phases (Pn, Sn, Pg, Lg) in order to increase seismic location accuracy, especially for explosion monitoring. The RSTT model is specifically designed to exploit regional phases for location, especially when combined with teleseismic arrivals. The latest RSTT model (version 201404um) is located on the Sandia National Laboratories web site (http://www.sandia.gov/rstt). We are in the process of updating the RSTT model to include new features. The original model used CRUST2.0 combined with an a priori model in Eurasia from US National Laboratories. The newest crustal update will use the CRUST1.0 version that includes more detailed and realistic structures. New event data are also being compiled that include global ground-truth (GT) information from local, regional, and teleseismic bulletins as well as data obtained through various RSTT workshops in South America, Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Using the new crust and available data, the tomography will be updated for improved coverage and accuracy, including new path-dependent uncertainty estimates for all regional phases. We also demonstrate validation of the new model and uncertainty estimates using the International Monitoring System stations and Reviewed Event Bulletin events.

        Speaker: Michael L. Begnaud (Los Alamos National Laboratory)
    • T5.3 Capacity Building, Education and Public Awareness Forum (Hofburg)



      • 78
        Raise the Nuclear Awareness for the Public Across Culture

        The CTBTO should raise public awareness about nuclear, while ordinary people maintain their fear of the nuclear for war purposes, skeptics pursue their knowledge for peaceful nuclear use. Both sides of the nuclear goal must be very well aware of most people in the world. The limited of nuclear knowledge will make people reject everything about nuclear which will endanger the development of peaceful nuclear use. While we know that a country's decision to support or reject international organizations is strongly influenced by the opinions of its people. With sufficient knowledge about nuclear benefits and threats, the public will play a major role in the development and global network for peaceful nuclear use and active supervision of the potential for nuclear use for war purposes, especially for the nuclear test ban. Cultural differences of the nations sometimes brought the low acceptance of global preference, with the active participation of CTBTO for nuclear education to the member's states peoples, cultural barriers among nations will be eliminated and allow the CTBT to be fully implemented into force. The contribution will be effective when CTBTO work together with a local institution.

        Speaker: Arief R Ismuharto (INSuBP)
      • 79
        Raising public awareness among students about CTBT in Nuclear Age

        The CTBT has languished for so long, that now we must not only revitalize the actors currently responsible for treaty entry-into-force, but also energize the upcoming group of advocates and scientists, many of whom are unaware of the treaty and it’s benefits. In order to bridge this gap, the youth generation has become the very important role in nuclear age. This paper examines how the CTBT serves as useful tool with which to learn and/or discuss a variety of topics,including the threat of nuclear proliferation,the use of diplomacy,the art of negotiation,the functioning of international organizations, and the impact of the Science and Technology (SnT) on International Relations. Students in Myanmar and Cambodia are unfamiliar with the intergovernmental organizations and regimes in place to reduce the dangers of nuclear weapons, tend to hold an ethnocentric perspective on nuclear weapon issues. Therefore, the CTBTO educational resources such as Knowledge and Training Portal whose various courses help students from Technological University (Kyaukse), Myanmar and Pannasatra University, Cambodia learn about the CTBT was introduced in 2018. Moreover, students were introduced the CTBTO youthgroup platform which involving the next generation have natured and encouraged young people who would play an important role in the future.

        Speaker: Thu Zar Win (Nagasaki University, Japan)
      • 80
        The Intrinsic Value of CTBTO Workshops, Training Programs, and Expert Meetings

        The Workshops,Training Programs and Expert Meetings of the CTBTO contribute significantly to optimizing the monitoring and verification of the CTBT, exchanging knowledge, strengthening the engagement of the scientific community, and identifying how scientific developments and cooperation can support national needs and the CTBT, all of which are goals of the 2019 SnT. Few people outside of Vienna know about these valuable workshops and programs.They have included a recent workshop on drilling in on-site inspections, and some of the many upcoming programs in 2019 include: NDC capacity building on analysis of radionuclide and waveform IMS data and IDC products, radionuclide training for station operators, Latin America and Caribbean infrasound training for NDCs.The workshops aim to achieve an understanding of the verification regime, build capabilities of the National Data Centres, provide expertise about using IMS data and IDC products, support practical experience in analyzing IMS data, build up national and regional capacities in implementing the Treaty, and increase participation in the verification regime. This presentation will describe the many workshops and training programs, the added value that they have imparted in the regions addressed, the significance of transmitting knowledge to future generations, and their contribution towards entry into force of the Treaty.

        Speaker: Jenifer Mackby (FAS)
    • 81
      vDEC Briefings: Experience in Using CTBT IMS Data for Scientific Applications

      Won-Young Kim

    • T3.5 Data Analysis Algorithms, Artificial Intelligence, Big Data and Deep Learning Forum (Hofburg)



      Chairperson: Ivan Kitov

      • 82
        A Methodology to Establish Bayesian Detection Limits for Radionuclide Monitoring

        The decision that a given detection level corresponds to the effective presence of a signal (i.e. a radionuclide activity) is currently widely made on the basis of a classic hypothesis test. However, the classic framework suffers several drawbacks, such as the impossibility to provide a probability of a given level of signal or a limitation on the type of distributions (ISO 11929). Furthermore, for heteroscedatic distributions, simulations have underlined the poor performance of these methods (Strom et al, Health Physics, 81(1), 2001). Several attempts have been made in the past to use a bayesian framework in detection and decision problems. Most have not been able to overcome some hurdles in the definition of hypothesis testing with a point like null hypothesis. We propose a method having good performances in terms of false positive rates, which can be applied to various type of distributions (analytically in some cases and at least numerically) and whose underlying principles are easy to understand. It relies on the interval estimation of the difference between two signals (noise versus noise added to the potential signal).

        Speaker: Guillaume Manificat (Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN))
      • 83
        Peak identification in EDS Measurements using multiple subset sum problem formulation

        In the framework of the everyday activity of NDCs analysts, accurate EDS analysis is generally achieved through a correctly identification of various spectral picks and other features of the spectrum. However, in practice, it is easy to misidentify the X-ray picks based on preconceptions of the result and due to presence of cumulated peaks even though the analyst think it should not. In fact, one of the most common errors made by EDS novices is the failing to identify X-ray peaks. One of the main reasons for the misidentification of X-ray peaks is due to the presence of the cumulated peaks. Cumulated peak was generally caused by accumulation of different possible values of emitted energies for a certain nuclide present in the spectrum which makes identification difficult. So, the matching of unidentified or cumulated peaks with adequate nuclides can be viewed as a combinatorial problem. To solve this problem and identifies some peak, we propose in this work a compact formulation of the problem as an integer linear program. The problem can be equivalently formulated as the well-known decision problem called the multiple subset sum problem which it can easily be solved in pseudo-polynomial time using dynamic programming.

        Speaker: Mohamed Maiza (Ecole Militaire Polytechnique)
    • 84
      Coffee Break
    • 85
      Panel Discussion: DPRK Nuclear Testing: CTBTO Expertise and Knowledge
    • 86
      Lunch Break
    • 87
      Highlight Talk 2: Knowledge of the Geosphere Structure and Dynamics - Knowledge Gained from 20 years of the CTBT - Structure and Dynamics of the Solid Earth
    • 88
      Panel Discussion: What Kind of Improvement Can Artificial Intelligence Bring to the Work of the CTBTO?
    • 89
      Poster Session: T1.2, T1.3, T1.4, T2.1, T2.2, T2.3, T3.1, T3.5, T5.2

      Topic T1.2 Solid Earth Structure
      T1.2-P1 22 New Focal Mechanism Solutions for Shallow Earthquakes and Stress Observations for Bolivia (Plurinational State of).
      T1.2-P2 3D Dynamic Earthquake Fracture Simulations Considering the Nonplanar Fault Geometry and Heterogeneous Stress States in the Sea of Marmara
      T1.2-P3 A comparative study on the tectogenesis of 2015 Mt. Kinabalu Earthquake of Sabah Malaysia and tsunamigenic 2018 Sulawesi Indonesia Earthquake
      T1.2-P4 A computer code for determining composite focal mechanism solutions
      T1.2-P124 SALSA3D software tools for model interrogation, event location and travel-time
      T1.2-P6 African Geodetic Reference Frame and First Results from GNSS Networks in Africa
      T1.2-P7 Amplification of Earthquake Magnitude and Sediment Thickness Correlation in Palu Region and Surrounding Areas
      T1.2-P8 An active tectonics of the Tien Shan and Dzungaria
      T1.2-P9 An improved velocity model for routine hypocenter location in Central Brazil
      T1.2-P10 Analyisis of Earthquake Swarm around Mamasa, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia Following the Palu Earthquake Mw 7.4 (September 28, 2018)
      T1.2-P11 Analysis of Time Domain Airborne Electromagnetic (TDEM) Data for Evaluating Gold Mineralization Potential of Ilesha Schist Belt, Southwestern Nigeria
      T1.2-P12 Analysis of unusual seismic events in northwestern Madagascar
      T1.2-P13 Are we able to detect viscoelastic inconsistencies in the Earth?
      T1.2-P14 Armenian Seismic Network and Earthquake Catalogue
      T1.2-P15 Changes of seismic structure beneath Jailolo region during June-July 2017 inferred from P-Wave Tomography
      T1.2-P16 Clustering Geometry of Aftershocks in Earthquakes
      T1.2-P17 Comoro-Islands, source of May-June 2018 earthquake swarm in the east of Mayotte-Island
      T1.2-P18 Comparison of Mainshock and Aftershock Energy Release (Case Study: Earthquake in Sumatera and Java Subduction)
      T1.2-P19 Contribution of local, sub-regional and international network to earthquake mapping of Côte d'Ivoire
      T1.2-P20 Crustal Composition and Moho Characteristics Beneath Northern African Region: New contribution for seismic Hazard Assessment
      T1.2-P21 Crustal seismic structure of Gheshm region, southeast Iran
      T1.2-P22 Crustal Structure and Seismogenic Zone of Cameroon: Integrated Seismic, Geological and Geophysical Data
      T1.2-P23 Crustal structure of some tectonic regions in west Africa
      T1.2-P24 Crustal Structure Study in Mongolian Altai
      T1.2-P25 Crustal thickness estimates beneath four seismic stations in Ethiopia inferred from p-wave receiver function studies
      T1.2-P26 Data base from a seismic network to monitor the 2018 enhanced geothermal system stimulation in Espoo/Helsinki, Finland.
      T1.2-P27 Deformational style in North-Western part of the Punjab Foreland
      T1.2-P28 Detailed Hypocenters Relocation With High Resolution Analysis on Tripa Fault
      T1.2-P29 Discriminating between induced, triggered and natural seismicity
      T1.2-P30 Dissecting hearts of the continent in southern Africa using first P-wave tomography based on local, regional, and mining-induced earthquakes
      T1.2-P31 Earthquake and Radioctivity, its Application in Indonesia
      T1.2-P33 Estimation of 2D and 3D shear wave velocity structure of crust and upper mantle of Northern part of Iranian plateaus
      T1.2-P34 Estimation of Local Site Effects Using Microtremor Testing in Erdenet City
      T1.2-P35 Estimation of moho depth under the MDT seismic station (Midelt, Morocco) using receiver function technique.
      T1.2-P36 Estimation Sources, Path and Site Effects from 2018 Lombok Earthquakes Sequences
      T1.2-P37 Flow plane orientation in the upper mantle under the United States from SKS shear-wave splitting observations
      T1.2-P38 Fractal analysis applied to the seismicity of Azerbaijan
      T1.2-P39 Geomagnetic Calculator over the Indonesian Region Based on Geomagnetic BMKG Data
      T1.2-P40 Geometrical definition of the Boconó fault in the sector Las Gonzalez Mérida, from the simultaneous relocation of seismic events occurring in a burst of seismicity during 2015-16
      T1.2-P41 Gravity Derived Crustal Thickness Map of Botswana: Implication to the Mw 6.5 April 3, 2017, Botswana Earthquake
      T1.2-P42 Ground response of Kathmandu Valley Sediments during 2015 Gorkha Earthquake
      T1.2-P43 Heterogeneities of short-period S wave attenuation field in the earth’s crust and uppermost mantle of the Eastern Tien Shan
      T1.2-P44 How complex is seismically active "Deren" area, 180km south of Ulaanbaatar?
      T1.2-P45 Imaging the crustal and mantle structure of the Baikal Rift from receiver functions
      T1.2-P46 Implication of Volcano-Tectonic and Fluid Movements on Seismic Activity in the Paka Geothermal Prospect
      T1.2-P47 Interdependence among earthquake magnitude, ground motion attenuation and consequences for the Central Asia derived from Pamir-Hindu Kush deep earthquakes data
      T1.2-P48 Investigate Seismic Sites Using Microtremor Studies and Elliptical Curve Inversion of Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio in Sleman, Yogyakarta
      T1.2-P49 Investigate subsurface structure beneath Sunda Straith
      T1.2-P50 Investigations of the 2018 earthquake swarm in Mamasa (Sulawesi), Indonesia
      T1.2-P51 Jordan Seismological Networks
      T1.2-P52 Kinematics of the Suez-Sinai area from combined GPS velocity field
      T1.2-P53 Lithospheric scattering and structure from teleseismic P waveforms
      T1.2-P54 Local magnitude Formula Determination of Seismic Swarm at The Long-Dormant Jailolo Volcano, West Halmahera, Indonesia
      T1.2-P55 Long-term Stability Evaluation of Foundation Material at Nuclear Power Stations
      T1.2-P56 Mikroearthquake Monitoring and Ambient Noise Tomography to Verify the Burried Faulths Beneath Jakarta
      T1.2-P57 Moment tensor solutions of earthquakes in south of Sumba Island (Indonesia)
      T1.2-P58 Monitoring of crustal activities using oceanfloor network system for disaster resilience
      T1.2-P59 Multi-disciplinary views on seismic hazard analysis in the eastern Caucasus (Azerbaijan)
      T1.2-P60 On the relationship between floods and earthquake in Southern Africa
      T1.2-P61 P and S wave tomography of the central Tien Shan from inversion of local earthquake arrival time data
      T1.2-P62 Possible relationship between electromagnetic signals of non-anthropic origin and seismic events, in the Sabana de Bogotá and surroundings
      T1.2-P63 Prediction of Earthquake Hazard in the northeast India Himalaya
      T1.2-P64 Preliminary Results from Ambient Noise Tomography across Africa
      T1.2-P65 Preliminary Results of Continuous Monitoring and Surface Condition of An Active Fault In The Southeast Aceh
      T1.2-P66 Preliminary study of seismic hazard along the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL)
      T1.2-P67 Preliminary Study the Impact of Directivity for Strong-Motion Effective Duration on High-Rise Building
      T1.2-P68 Present-day stress field in NW Himalaya and surrounding regions based on inversion of earthquake focal mechanisms
      T1.2-P69 Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment in Kenya and Its Vicinity
      T1.2-P70 Probing the stress regimen at Bolivian south Subandean belt by Focal mechanism computation: Villa Serrano earthquake, 4.7 Mw 2018.
      T1.2-P71 Properties of the high-frequency ambient seismic field recorded on a large-N (N=10,530) seismic deployment in the Vienna Basin
      T1.2-P72 Receiver Function Analysis of the IMS stations located in Africa
      T1.2-P73 Recent seismicity along the the Davie Ridge/Fracture zone
      T1.2-P74 Relevance of National Data Centres Established in Southern Africa, the case study for Zambia
      T1.2-P75 Revisiting The 2018 Kalibening Earthquake Sequence In Central Java: Call for the Revision of Earthquake Hazard
      T1.2-P76 S-wave Velocity Structure beneath PS14-ROSC Station using Microtremor Arrays
      T1.2-P77 Seismic Geohazard Monitoring in the Baringo Silali Geothermal Prospect in Northern Kenya
      T1.2-P78 Seismic hazard assessment for Madagascar
      T1.2-P80 Seismic Hazard Scenario in Western Himalaya, India
      T1.2-P81 Seismic Impact from Earthquakes of Different Distance upon the Territory of Belarus
      T1.2-P82 Seismic study to support PSHA in Greater Caucasus (Azerbaijan)
      T1.2-P83 Seismic Wave Attenuation Model of the Lithosphere and Upper Mantle of the Northeastern Part of the Baikal Rift System
      T1.2-P84 Seismicity along the seismogenic zone of Algarve region (southern Portugal)
      T1.2-P85 Seismicity and GPS Observations for studying crustal deformation and Geodynamics in and around Egypt
      T1.2-P86 Seismicity and seismogenic structure of the Emeelt fault, Mongolia
      T1.2-P87 Seismicity and Seismotectonics of center Sudan and their Implications
      T1.2-P88 Seismicity of the Okavango Delta Region: Contribution of IMS and Local stations
      T1.2-P90 Seismological and tectonics Of Jordan
      T1.2-P91 Seismotectonic of the Anker Area, Namibia
      T1.2-P92 Seismotectonics of southern Africa
      T1.2-P93 Shale rheology and its relationship to the variation of VP and VS to identify nuclear waste storage sites.
      T1.2-P94 Simultaneous Inversion Of The P Wave Velocity Model And Relocation Of Earthquakes In The Northern Sumatra Region Using SimulPS-12
      T1.2-P95 Sinkhole process interpretation based on shear wave seismic reflection results at Ghor Al-Haditha, Dead Sea
      T1.2-P96 Some Regularities of Seismicity of Western and Central Uzbekistan
      T1.2-P97 Source parameters and focal mechanism of local earthquakes in Albania
      T1.2-P98 Source Process Analysis of the 28 September 2018 Palu Earthquake (Mw 7.4) Using Teleseismic Waveform
      T1.2-P99 Sources of P-wave Microseisms Detected with the TA Array in Alaska
      T1.2-P100 Static Stress Drop and Strain Rate Analysis of the Palu Earthquake Mw 7.4 (September 28, 2018)
      T1.2-P101 Statistical analysis of the seismicity around the capital of Mongolia
      T1.2-P102 Stress/strain state colouring method for IMS data imaging
      T1.2-P103 Structure of the Ulaanbaatar Region from Gravity Data
      T1.2-P104 Study of Activities in Local Segments of the Bengkulu Area for the Year 2017
      T1.2-P105 Study the seismic activity along the Dead Sea Transform Fault System and Surrounding Area during 2010-2016
      T1.2-P106 Tectonic activity and its influence in the increase of earthquakes in Iraq
      T1.2-P107 Tectonic Plates Interactions and Detection Capabilities of the IMS Seismic Stations in the Africa Region
      T1.2-P108 The aftershock sequence of the 22 September 2016, Mozambique earthquake (ML 5.2)
      T1.2-P109 The b-value of local seismicity around Seymareh Dam (Zagros region-Iran), before and after impoundment
      T1.2-P110 The Caucasus Seismic Hazard
      T1.2-P111 The Lushnje-Elbasan-Diber Fautl: Crustal Structure and Seismic Activity
      T1.2-P112 The Minimum 1-D P-wave velocity model for a local earthquake data with precise and consistent earthquake locations in the southern Hangay region
      T1.2-P113 The Relationships of Subparallel Synthetic Faults and Pre-existing structures in the Central Malawi Rift
      T1.2-P114 The role of geochemical and petrographic properties of rocks on the rheology (viscosity) of magmatic systems: Involvement in wave spread and internal dynamics of the Earth, case of the Nyiragongo volcano field in the Virunga Volcanic Province (East African rift)
      T1.2-P115 The Seismic Network of Zambia
      T1.2-P116 The Statistical Data Analysis of Zambian Seismicity Outlook
      T1.2-P117 Understanding Pamir-Hindukush Seismicity
      T1.2-P118 Updating the Egyptian Earthquake Source Parameters Database
      T1.2-P119 Upper crustal structure at the KTB drilling site from ambient noise tomography
      T1.2-P120 Upper mantle imaging with surface wave diffraction: AlpArray seismic network and the Cameroon Volcanic Line
      T1.2-P121 Use of Microtremor for Site Period Estimation and Seismic Site Hazard Assessment in Bangladesh
      T1.2-P122 Using HV method for imaging of fault zones (the Baikal rift)
      T1.2-P123 Velocity of seismic waves in the earth's crust and upper mantle of the Siberian platform and Baikal folded region according to underground nuclear explosions

      Topic T1.3 Properties of the Ocean
      T1.3-P1 Acoustic presence of blue, fin and minke whales recorded at the CTBT HA03 hydroacoustic station, 2007-2016
      T1.3-P2 Climate of the upper ocean layer in statons of Ecuadorian sea
      T1.3-P3 IMS discrimination between T-phases originating from volcanic tremors versus H-phases induced by volcanic eruptions in the northwestern Pacific Ocean
      T1.3-P4 Long-range ocean sound propagation effects related to the search for the Argentine submarine ARA San Juan.
      T1.3-P5 Scenario-Based Tsunami Hazard Assessment for Karpathos Island, Southeastern Aegean Sea
      T1.3-P6 Simulation of Dahlia Tropical Cyclone Impact on Atmospheric Dynamic and Ocean in Sunda Strait using Delft-3D model
      T1.3-P7 Subspace detection of seismic survey signals observed on the IMS hydroacoustic network
      T1.3-P8 Suprapodal hydroacoustic observations of earthquakes along the Middle America Trench
      T1.3-P10 Tsunami waveform analysis of the 2018 Caribbean earthquake (Mw7.6) and its implication to the tsunami hazard along the eastern coast of Central America

      Topic T1.4 Interaction Among the Earth’s Subsystems
      T1.4-P1 7Be in South America: detection by IMS radionuclide stations and possible applications for climate and environmental studies
      T1.4-P2 An Earthquake Precursor Using The Anomalous Radon Concentration: Study Case Palu Earthquake, Indonesia, Magnitude 7.2, September 28, 2019
      T1.4-P3 Anomaly Of Total Electron Content Associated With Earthquakes And Tsunami Observed From GPS Data in Indonesia
      T1.4-P4 Combined Electromagnetic (EM) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) Geophysical Studies of Environmental Impact of Awotan Dumpsite in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria
      T1.4-P5 Detection of Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances from an Earthquake and a Volcano Eruption: Case Study
      T1.4-P6 Can Climate Change Predict and Trigger the Earthquake Activity?
      T1.4-P7 Monitoring and Verification Systems for Nuclear Tests with Biological Indeces.
      T1.4-P8 Monitoring of naturally occurring radionuclides in Santa Cruz - Galapagos Islands, in relation to atmospheric and ocean-atmosphere interaction processes over the Galapagos Islands and the Ecuadorian coast
      T1.4-P9 Monitoring Seismic Events and Content of Isotopes on Atmospheric Aerosol of Tajikistan
      T1.4-P10 Observations of Interactions Among Earth’s Subsystems from the EarthScope Transportable Array
      T1.4-P11 Optimistic Monitoring earthquake Precursor in Sumatra
      T1.4-P12 Seasonal variations of microseisms in the Baikal rift
      T1.4-P13 Seismo-acoustic observation of the ocean swell sources at BURAR site
      T1.4-P14 Seismologically determined features of the Arshan debris flow, June 27–29, 2014 (Russia)
      T1.4-P15 ThunderSeis: Seismic analysis of thunder infrasound
      T1.4-P16 Use of MSM facilities for monitoring hazardous geophysical phenomena and climate change in the Antarctic Peninsula region

      Topic T2.1 Characterization of Treaty-Relevant Events
      T2.1-P1 A Seismo-Acoustic Analysis of the 2017 North Korean Nuclear Test
      T2.1-P2 Analysis of macro-seismic effects of UNE and large chemical explosions conducted in Asia
      T2.1-P3 Analysis of Moment Magnitude (Mw) to Compare The Energy of Six North Korea's Nuclear Test with Plutonium-240
      T2.1-P4 Applying radioxenon isotopic ratios for nuclear explosion monitoring
      T2.1-P5 Automatic computation of MSVMAX magnitude at the French National Data Center
      T2.1-P6 Candidate methods for the implementation of OSI Resonance Seismometry
      T2.1-P7 Cloud Computing Earth-Observation Remote Sensing Characterization of Nuclear Test Site: A Data Fusion Approach
      T2.1-P8 Comparative analysis of the waveforms of the North Korean nuclear tests obtained by the seismological method at the Alibek station
      T2.1-P9 Comparison of the DPRK aftershocks observed in 2019 with the aftershocks between September 2016 and April 2018
      T2.1-P10 Data History from Nuclear power
      T2.1-P11 Detection of nuclear explosions by remote regional seismic network
      T2.1-P12 Determination of Body-wave Magnitudes of the North Korean Underground Nuclear Tests
      T2.1-P13 Explosion Monitoring Research at the Nevada National Security Site
      T2.1-P14 Focal mechanism of 2017 DPRK nuclear explosion and its collapse event
      T2.1-P15 Identification of quarry blasts near BRMAR seismic array: An application of Multichannel Cross-Correlation detector.
      T2.1-P16 Infrasound Signals from the 2017 North Korean Underground Nuclear Explosion and the Subsequent Collapse Event
      T2.1-P17 Overview of North Korean nuclear tests based on data from modernized Slovak National Network of Seismic Stations
      T2.1-P18 Overview of TIMEtool, a software for nuclear event timing
      T2.1-P19 Radionuclide signatures of molten salt reactors
      T2.1-P20 Relative Location of DPRK Test Events
      T2.1-P21 Relative location of North Korean nuclear tests using IMS data: how do different techniques compare?
      T2.1-P22 Relocation of seismic events in South Africa for ground truth identification and classification.
      T2.1-P23 Representation of Complex Seismic Sources by Orthogonal Moment Tensor Fields
      T2.1-P24 Seismological Investigations of the 2017 North Korean Nuclear Test
      T2.1-P25 Source depth and characteristics of the DPRK’s nuclear tests [2006, 2009, 2013, 2016J (01/06/2016), 2016S (09/09/2016) and 2017] using regional and teleseismic data
      T2.1-P26 Source time functions of North Korean nuclear tests
      T2.1-P27 Space Borne Optical and Radar Data to characterize North Korean Nuclear Test 2017
      T2.1-P28 Summary of Common Exercise (Waveform Portion) at the 6th East Asia Regional NDC Workshop 2018
      T2.1-P29 The detection of underground nuclear explosions by natural signatures
      T2.1-P30 Three-dimensional space analysis of radioxenon isotopic activity ratios for characterizing a nuclear event
      T2.1-P31 Towards an Improved Catalogue of Shallow Ground Truth Events in Eastern North America
      T2.1-P32 Underground Nuclear Explosions on the North Korean Test Site According to the KNET Network Data
      T2.1-P33 Utilization of radionuclide IMS data and IDC products in Belarus NDC
      T2.1-P34 Yield estimates for the DPRK’s sixth nuclear test with radar and seismic analysis
      T2.1-P35 Yield estimation of DPRK3 test with radionuclide IMS stations measurements

      Topic T2.2 Challenges of On-Site Inspection
      T2.2-P1 Application of Complex Geopyhsical Research for the On-Site Inspection of Nuclear Tests
      T2.2-P2 Application of the Radionuclide Method Using Tritium as an Indicator for On-Site Inspection
      T2.2-P3 Business Approach to Finish an Unsolved Dilemma of the OSI
      T2.2-P4 Challenges in hosting an On-site Inspection regional course
      T2.2-P5 Challenges of On-Site Inspection in Extreme Climatic Conditions
      T2.2-P6 ESI 2007 Earthquake Intensity Scale in help of CTBT OSI’s Verification Regime
      T2.2-P7 Jurisdictional complexities of identifying "Inspected State Party", pertain to sea-bed extension
      T2.2-P8 Studying the Suspected Site of Nuclear Test by Using Microtremor Method
      T2.2-P9 Testing at Sea is a High Probability Event
      T2.2-P10 The family of the OSI
      T2.2-P12 The Use of Geophysical Methods in On-Site Inspections for Disguised Underground Nuclear Explosions
      T2.2-P13 Theoretical signature of a cavern created by an Underground Nuclear Explosion in 2D exploration seismic data.
      T2.2-P15 VNIIA major activities related to the CTBT technologies

      Topic T2.3 Seismoacoustic Sources in Theory and Practice
      T2.3-P1 A new GT5 event in a previously aseismic region of the Brazilian Phanerozoic Parnaiba Basin
      T2.3-P2 A Post Sunda Strait Tsunami Survey of Sunda Strait Tsunami, December 22nd 2018
      T2.3-P3 Analysis and modeling of the infrasound signals from the 2017 DPRK nuclear explosion at IMS station IS45
      T2.3-P4 Analysis of Kosti Meteorite using Infrasound Data: A case Study In Sudan
      T2.3-P5 Analysis of the infrasound signals from a bolide over the Bering Sea
      T2.3-P6 Complex seismological investigations near Bulgarian Antarctic Base
      T2.3-P7 Contribution to numerical modeling of site effect by linear equivalent and nonlinear approaches.
      T2.3-P8 Deployment of temporal infrasound array in Ecuador
      T2.3-P9 Detection and interpretation of Seismoacoustic and Seismic events at NDC Iraq
      T2.3-P10 Determine the relationship between seismic and acoustic signals
      T2.3-P11 Discrimination between quarry blasts and local earthquakes in Aswan, Egypt
      T2.3-P12 Distributed acoustic sensing observations and modeling of the DAG series of chemical explosions
      T2.3-P13 Estimating seismic source depths using body and surface wave observations
      T2.3-P14 High frequency events detected by I33MG
      T2.3-P15 High-Precision Teleseismic Double-Difference Earthquake Relocation of Palu – Koro Earthquake M 7.4
      T2.3-P16 Hybrid waveform modeling for small-scale source complexity at teleseismic distances
      T2.3-P17 Implications for S wave generation from subsurface chemical explosions using large arrays of sensors
      T2.3-P18 Infrasonic bulletin to station IS41
      T2.3-P19 Infrasound monitoring of deorbiting Soyuz crafts on the territory of Central Kazakhstan
      T2.3-P20 Measurement of Rotational Ground Motions for CTBT
      T2.3-P21 More precise location of Aswan seismicity based on waveform analysis
      T2.3-P22 Seismic Moment Tensor Inversion for Source-Type Identification
      T2.3-P23 Simultaneous relocation of the seismicity of the Pannonian Basin using Bayesloc
      T2.3-P24 Source Models and Scattering Origin of Regional Phases from Coda Spectral Ratios
      T2.3-P25 Study of seismoacoustic signatures of the September 28th 2018 Sulawesi earthquake
      T2.3-P26 The Annual Hungarian Seismo-Acoustic Bulletin of Ground Truth Events
      T2.3-P27 The Baumgarten and Ingolstadt explosions: infrasound observations from ground truth sources in Eastern Austria and Southern Germany
      T2.3-P28 Tropical cyclones monitoring in the Indian Ocean Basin using Seismic and Infrasonic stations
      T2.3-P30 Waveform and Dispersion Modeling Using DPRK Regional Seismograms Recorded by the High Sensitivity Seismic Network of Japan

      Topic T3.1 Design of Sensor Systems and Advanced Sensor Technologies
      T3.1-P1 A Differential Highly Sensitivity Sensor for Accounting of Seismic Devices Instrumental Thermal Noise
      T3.1-P2 A New Gamma Camcorder
      T3.1-P3 A new process design for compact radioxenon separation system
      T3.1-P4 A new three-component optical accelerometer
      T3.1-P5 Antineutrino detectors: an evaluation of their use for monitoring of nuclear explosions
      T3.1-P6 Application of Optimal Filtering to Take into Account the Influence of Baric and Temperature Fluctuations of the Seismic Instrument and the Environment
      T3.1-P7 Applying an anti-coincidence system plastic-HPGe to lower the MDA of radioxenon measurement
      T3.1-P8 Atmospheric air radioactivity monitoring at BEO Moussala
      T3.1-P9 Calibration of Infrasound Sensors in a Long-Term Field Study
      T3.1-P10 Characterization of the microbarometer’s sensitivity to the environment
      T3.1-P11 Comparison of PSD methods in simultaneous discrimination of alpha-gamma radiations
      T3.1-P12 Deployment of Portable Infrasound Array in Costa Rica
      T3.1-P13 Development and optimization of the infrasound observation system of the NDC of Ukraine
      T3.1-P14 Development of a Mobile Radiation Detection System
      T3.1-P15 Development of a new compact photon/electron detector for radioxenon measurement
      T3.1-P16 Development of an Electrostatic Precipitator System for Radionuclide Particle Collection
      T3.1-P17 Distributed Fiber Optic Seismic Sensors with Seismic Noise Floor Performance
      T3.1-P18 Experimental setup and results of xenon sorption characteristics research for a number of adsorbents
      T3.1-P19 Fault Identification using Seismic Data Monitoring in Jakarta, Indonesia
      T3.1-P20 Future of aerosol radionuclide monitoring
      T3.1-P21 Geant4 Monte Carlo radioxenon beta-gamma coincidence efficiency simulation for a SAUNA detector
      T3.1-P22 Hyper-sensitive Gamma spectrometry – approaching the ultimate limit
      T3.1-P23 Improvement of energy resolution of beta detector in radioxenon detection system (INGAS)
      T3.1-P24 Improving sensitivity of Noble Gas cluster without enlargement stationary NG stations .
      T3.1-P25 Investigating New Detection Mediums for Atmospheric Radioxenon Measurements
      T3.1-P26 New Lobular Detection Technology and Possible Applications
      T3.1-P27 Next generation low-power HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer to improve IMS particulate radionuclide station reliability
      T3.1-P28 Project PIM: a low-cost mobile seismo-acoustic sensor for geophysical deployments
      T3.1-P29 PVA nanofibers based microfluidics chip for detection and absorption of nuclear radioactive solutions
      T3.1-P30 Radiation detection for OSI - A study of non-He-3 neutron detectors
      T3.1-P31 Radioactive gas metrology at NPL and the development of short-lived gas standards
      T3.1-P32 Radioxenon collection using synthetized xenon-adsorbing material for Nuclear Test Monitoring
      T3.1-P33 Report on SPALAX-NG validation tests and performances
      T3.1-P34 Results from a 6-month acceptance test of the SAUNA III- prototype
      T3.1-P35 SAUNA-CUBE: The first prototype for a noble gas system adapted for an Array-network
      T3.1-P36 Status of infrasound and seismic metrology at CEA
      T3.1-P37 Status of the stack monitor for the STAX project
      T3.1-P38 Study of materials for improved adsorption of xenon at IMS radionuclide stations
      T3.1-P39 Testing of Cosmic Veto for RASA Background and MDC Reduction
      T3.1-P40 The contribution of micro-gravity in delineating subsurface tunnels and caves
      T3.1-P41 The gas processing system of SAUNA CUBE
      T3.1-P42 The Güralp Affinity as a replacement for the DM24SxAM
      T3.1-P43 The radiation dose monitoring network system in a coastal area
      T3.1-P44 Three Future Filters for IMS Radionuclide Particulate Operations
      T3.1-P45 Towards disaster mitigation on Earthquakes and Tsunamis using off shore real time monitoring data
      T3.1-P46 Ultra-sensitive measurements of large-volume radioxenon samples using an ultra-low-background proportional counter
      T3.1-P47 Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in On-site Inspection: New techniques for gamma spectroscopy survey
      T3.1-P48 Updated results from long-term infrasound sensor comparison
      T3.1-P49 Xenon International

      Topic T3.5 Data Analysis Algorithms, Artificial Intelligence, Big Data and Deep Learning
      T3.5-P1 A Demonstration of the RKF Solution Method for Multi-physics Analysis of Radionuclides Evolved in Nuclear Testing
      T3.5-P2 A new analysis method for beta-gamma radioxenon spectra, including improved calculation of decision limits
      T3.5-P3 A new approach for calculating 1D local velocity model using Particle Swarm Optimization technique
      T3.5-P4 A new blind deconvolution approach for the separation of seismic waves
      T3.5-P5 A novel approach for signal sparse time-frequency representations
      T3.5-P6 A semi-automatic method for extraction and interpretation of reflection Green’s Functions from ambient noise and signal, for IMS seismic station crustal reflector characterization
      T3.5-P7 A simplified Fuzzy ARTMAP neural network based-approach for seismic signal discrimination between earthquakes and quarry blasts
      T3.5-P8 An Integrated Study of Vp/Vs and Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) Anomalies Before Lombok Earthquake (M 6.8)
      T3.5-P9 Analyzing seismic explosion records using SEISAN
      T3.5-P10 Application of Butterworth High Pass Filter as an Approximation of Wood Anderson Seismometer Frequency Response to Earthquake Signal Recording
      T3.5-P11 Applying waveform correlation to aftershock sequences using a global sparse network
      T3.5-P12 Automatic characterization of phase type at three-component seismic stations using neural networks
      T3.5-P13 Automatic machine learning methods for analyzing radioxenon isotopes spectra
      T3.5-P14 Automatic Systems for Accurate Tracking of Aftershock Sequences
      T3.5-P15 Bayesian Approach to Localization of Atmospheric Release with Demonstration on the Case of Ruthenium-106 Release in 2017
      T3.5-P16 Can artificial intelligence help detect nuclear explosions?
      T3.5-P17 Coherent Detection on Networks
      T3.5-P18 Comparing REB and SSEB (IDC products) with other Seismic Data Centers
      T3.5-P19 Comparison of pick-based and waveform-based event detectors for local to near-regional distance data from Utah
      T3.5-P20 Contribution of Kazakhstan's Stations of the International Monitoring System into Global and Regional Monitoring
      T3.5-P21 Data Processing Modular Software for real-time Stack Monitor
      T3.5-P22 Detecting low magnitude seismic events using Convolutional Neural Networks
      T3.5-P23 Detection algorithm based on the fourth order cumulant
      T3.5-P24 Detection and classification of lightning events
      T3.5-P25 Detection performance of dynamic correlation processors using de-noised signal space-spanning templates
      T3.5-P26 Developing a Deployable, Flexible Radionuclide Analysis Pipeline
      T3.5-P27 Discrimination Between Earthquakes and Explosions by Using scaling parameter Hurst Parameter
      T3.5-P28 Discrimination between nuclear explosions and natural earthquakes
      T3.5-P29 Disturbing Incidents Signal Character Analysis in Nuclear Explosion Infrasound Detection
      T3.5-P30 Dynamic and Agnostic State of Health (SOH) Analysis Tools for Noble Gas Systems
      T3.5-P31 Enhancement on the algorithm of characterization limits of the net count calculation method for low counts of IMS beta-gamma coincidence noble gas samples
      T3.5-P32 Exploiting Bayesian inference priors to form synthetic waveform events or to validate events formed by automatic processing
      T3.5-P33 Global and local scale high-resolution seismic event catalogs for algorithm development and testing
      T3.5-P34 Implementation of a Fast Infrasonic Spectrum Sensing System Based on Fisher-Statistics Detection Method
      T3.5-P35 Improvements of phase detection and identification using 3C array processing
      T3.5-P36 InfraPy – An Open Source Signal Analysis Toolkit for Infrasound Research
      T3.5-P37 iNSPIRE: iNtegrated Software Platform for the Interactive REview - The first release features for beta-gamma coincidence based noble gas data
      T3.5-P38 Joint Processing of Seismic and Infrasound Signals from Mining Blasts
      T3.5-P39 Learning about small-scale atmospheric structures through recurrent infrasound events
      T3.5-P40 Leveraging Powerful Artificial Intelligence Abstractions of IMS Data
      T3.5-P41 Long-term infrasound monitoring of volcanic activities of Kyushu region in Japan
      T3.5-P43 Matrix operation of the net count calculation method for beta-gamma coincidence spectrum analysis of IMS noble gas samples
      T3.5-P44 Mel Cepstrum techniques for event identification
      T3.5-P45 Multilayer neural network architecture optimization and performance amelioration for seismic signal classification using genetic algorithms
      T3.5-P46 Optimization algorithm for synergy of CTBT verification techniques in addressing IMS and OSI tasks
      T3.5-P47 Platform for Rain Monitoring and Flood Prevention Risk Oriented Citizen in Dakar
      T3.5-P48 RASA Filter Jam Detection Algorithms
      T3.5-P49 Recent Advances and Status of Generative Modeling for Network Processing at the CTBTO
      T3.5-P50 Reduction of wind noise impact based on the use of data from a weather station in recording infrasound signals at IS43
      T3.5-P51 RNIAC: A cloud-based approach of the Radionuclide National Data Centre (NDC) in a Box software (RNIAB)
      T3.5-P52 RSTT validation studies in the Middle East, Central Asia and the Caucasus
      T3.5-P53 Scientific evaluation of the benefits of increase in resolution for IDC's ATM tools and launching interface
      T3.5-P54 SeisComP3 iLoc integration applied to array processing
      T3.5-P55 Seismic instrument response representation using poles and zeros in Laplace domain.
      T3.5-P56 Seismic Phase Identification with Deep Learning in Frequency Domain
      T3.5-P57 Sensitivity analysis and disaggregation of recent seismic hazard assessment in Egypt
      T3.5-P58 Sensitivity of a Bayesian source-term estimation model to spatiotemporal sensor resolution
      T3.5-P59 Signal Character Analysis of Lightning in Nuclear Explosion Infrasound Detection
      T3.5-P60 Simulations of gamma ray spectra of fission samples
      T3.5-P61 Source Spectral Discrimination between Shallow Earthquakes and Quarry Explosions in Northern of Egypt
      T3.5-P62 Source Term Estimation in the Presence of Nuisance Signals
      T3.5-P63 Source Term Estimation Using Multiple Isotopes in Atmospheric Samples
      T3.5-P64 Source term estimation with a simple weak-constraint inverse modeling scheme
      T3.5-P65 Spectral Region-of-Interest Methods Used in Net Count Calculations
      T3.5-P66 Spectrum Analysis of Digital Seismic Data in Indonesia
      T3.5-P67 Stack data processing pipeline
      T3.5-P68 Study of variants for seismic data pre-processing which are not leading to significant losses of information that may be needed
      T3.5-P69 SVM classification of explosions and earthquakes using seismic features
      T3.5-P70 Testing IMS/CTBT Verification Capability Using July 2013 Lake Albert Seismic Activity in Western Rift, Uganda
      T3.5-P71 The application of multi-criteria synthetic method in discrimination of nuclear explosions from earthquakes
      T3.5-P72 The challenge of quantitative comparison and quality assessment of IDC waveform bulletins
      T3.5-P73 The Identification and Determination of Small Peaks and the False Positive Alarm in RN Particulate Spectra Analysis
      T3.5-P74 The iterative processing framework: a new paradigm for automatic event building
      T3.5-P76 The Wind Influence to the Detection Ability of Permanent and Mobile Infrasound Stations in Mongolia
      T3.5-P77 Toward reliable certainty for seismic processing tasks with deep learning
      T3.5-P78 Towards Automatic Noble Gas Data Processing at the Canadian NDC
      T3.5-P79 Towards real-time association of infrasound events using full-wave modeling
      T3.5-P80 Using spectral ratios to discriminate between low-magnitude earthquakes, explosions and mining events in Canada
      T3.5-P81 Weather support and application of ATM during an OSI: development perspectives
      T3.5-P82 When can the combination of seismic and infrasound data improve event location?
      T3.5-P83 Application of Nonlinear Echo State Network (Machine Learning) in Daily Streamflow Forecasting

      Topic T5.2 Experience with and Possible Additional Contributions to Issues of Global Concern such as Disaster Risk Mitigation, Climate Change Studies and Sustainable Development Goals
      T5.2-P1 Activities of the Ghana Nuclear Data Centre (NDC)
      T5.2-P2 Awareness about the benefits of "Hydroacoustic Technology" for tsunami warnings in coastal areas in India.
      T5.2-P3 Contribution to the Global Non-Proliferation and Nuclear Disarmament Regime at the Example of Kazakhstan-Japan Cooperation
      T5.2-P4 Contributions to Issues of Global Concern such as Disaster Risk Mitigation
      T5.2-P5 CTBT in Global Context: Nepal' Scenario
      T5.2-P6 CTBT Technology for securing SDG 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of Water and sanitation for all.
      T5.2-P7 Earthquake Preparedness and the University Community Response in Albania
      T5.2-P8 Earthquake tectonics, sustainability of cities and infrastructure, seismic hazard assessment and mitigation. A Case study in north-east of Azerbaijan
      T5.2-P9 Economic uses of previous nuclear test grounds (Semipalatinsk test site)
      T5.2-P10 Five ideas for health and environment deals
      T5.2-P11 Geological controls and Climate change in the Greater Himalayan region
      T5.2-P12 How National Young Academies can Help CTBTO implementing relevant Sustainable Development Goals
      T5.2-P13 Identification of Mass Movements Using the CTBTO IMS Data: Seismo-Acoustic Technology
      T5.2-P14 Integrating the CTBTO IMS and NDC into the NNNREP as a Tool for Enhancing Radiological Emergency Response and Preparedness in Nigeria
      T5.2-P15 Integration of IMS Data and Smart Cities: Mardim Streps - Smart City Istanbul
      T5.2-P16 Integration of Seismic Data of IMS for Sustainable Cities and Communities
      T5.2-P17 Integration of the IMS waveform technologies for Tsunami Early Warning: A perspective from Venezuela and the Caribbean
      T5.2-P18 Investigation of the Catchments Sensitivity on the Observed Climate Change Signal
      T5.2-P19 Microgravity Survey to Evaluate Earthquake Effects on a Dam Site in Iraq
      T5.2-P20 Mining and pure uranium in Mexico, its social and environmental implications. Case: Durango
      T5.2-P21 Modeling of atmospheric dispersion and radiation dose for a hypothetical accident in Radioisotope production facility
      T5.2-P22 Modern seismic network development in Iraq
      T5.2-P23 Nuclear energy and nuclear bombs effect on the environment.
      T5.2-P24 Operational Readiness of CTBT Hydroacoustic Stations in Achieving Sustainable Development Goal 14
      T5.2-P25 Prediction of Major Earthquakes Using 4-D Seismic Attenuation Tomography
      T5.2-P26 Preventing the Effects of Natural Disasters and Nuclear Test with the CTBT Verification Technologies for Myanmar
      T5.2-P27 Promotion of Civil and Scientific Applications of Data and Techniques used for Nuclear-Test-Ban Verification
      T5.2-P28 Recent seismic activities in Ghana: The role of the National Data Centre (NDC)
      T5.2-P29 Remote sensing earthquake ground motions using seismo-acoustic coupled signals
      T5.2-P30 Scientific Applications of IDC and IMS Products: Earthquake Research and Tsunami Warning in Sri Lanka
      T5.2-P31 Seismic Hazard Assessment for Northern Malawi
      T5.2-P32 Seismic Intensity Map of 5.5 Mozambique Earthquake
      T5.2-P34 Site Class Analysis for Preparation Due to Measurement ANT using PSD at Jakarta
      T5.2-P35 Strategies to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons and create in their place energy to alleviate the energy shortage in the world.
      T5.2-P36 Summer School in Old Nuclear Test Site in Kazakhstan
      T5.2-P37 Sustainable Development and experiences in the nuclear sphere from Serbia, still not member of the European Union
      T5.2-P38 Swedish Biodiversity in Time and Space
      T5.2-P39 The Advances in Scientific Technology and Enforcement of Effective Socio-Political and Economic Policies Will be the Surest Way to Achieve the SDG's
      T5.2-P40 The changes in the wildlife of a region as an indicator of the effect of the radiation caused by the nuclear tests
      T5.2-P41 The CTBTO IMS and NDC Opportunities to Help Detect, Prepare, Respond and Mitigate Disasters from Earthquakes and Tremors in Abuja, Nigeria
      T5.2-P42 The future of nuclear energy in Latin America
      T5.2-P43 The Investigation between the CTBT and the UN Sustainable Development Goals
      T5.2-P44 The role of NDCs and NDC cooperation to promote the additional use and understanding of IMS data to benefit civil applications
      T5.2-P45 The WHO and the CTBTO: joint initiatives to address air pollution in the cities
      T5.2-P46 Tsunami Evacuation Map in Padang, West Sumatra for Disaster Risk Mitigation
      T5.2-P47 Tsunami risk assessment in South-Eastern Mediterranean
      T5.2-P48 Urban Seismic Risk Evaluation for Georgia
      T5.2-P49 Waiting to the eight: Billions people and CTBTO committed for a safer world

    • T2.2 Challenges of On-Site Inspection Rittersaal (Hofburg)



      Poster presenter attendance on: Wednesday 26 June from 17:30 to 18:30

      • 90
        A rapid and non-destructive method for determining in-situ Uniaxial Compressive Strength (UCS) of rocks during On-Site Inspections.

        The On-Site Inspection Action Plan (OSI-AP), CTBT/PTS/INF.1343, serves as a tool for furthering OSI capabilities towards the establishment of a balanced, coherent, and robust verification regime at entry into force (EIF) of the CTBT. In furtherance to the objectives of OSI-AP, an experts meeting was held on 7-9 March 2018 to consider issues relating to OSI GVOB and position finding. Petrographic techniques to examine thin sections of rocks during initial inspection period (IIP) was proposed. However, rock sample collection, thin section preparation and petrographic analysis, herein considered a destructive method, was not adopted as an OSI technique. The in-situ Uniaxial Compressive Strength (UCS) test technique was proposed as a viable alternative. UCS is a non-destructive test for rapid assessment of condition of rocks and concrete structures. The tests are easier to undertake because they necessitate less/no sample collection, and thin sections preparation and petrographic analysis. Results of UCS tests during geological and geophysical investigations for dam site in Kenya will be presented during the Science and Technology Conference (SnT2019). The UCS results as well as use of the technique during OSI enable rapid decision making as to the nature and characteristics of in-situ rocks thus allowing investigations/inspections using intrusive techniques.

        Speaker: Josphat Kyalo MULWA (University of Nairobi, Department of Geology)
      • 91
        CHAOS during an OSI (applying measurement restrictions to sample characterisation at the BOO)

        A ruggedised, gamma-gamma based system for in-field, real-time measurements of environmental samples has been developed at GBL15. This is specifically designed to enable measurement restrictions, such that it can support OSI activities envisaged under the CTBT. In restricted mode, only the 17 OSI relevant radionuclides are measured, with zero information recorded regarding other radionuclides. All data acquisition, analysis, and reporting is automated, and implemented within a CAEN S.p.A. HEXAGON dual-input Multi-Channel Analyser (MCA). Multiple analysis streams are deployed on the system, including traditional analysis of a histogram for each detector channel (in both full and restricted modes), and coincidence analysis based upon real-time sorting of time-stamped, list-mode events stored in the buffer of the MCA. This multi-faceted approach allows for far greater confidence in the reported results, as all data streams report fully quantified radionuclide activities and uncertainties. The software is fully configurable depending on the level of measurement restriction required; the detail available ranges from the full analysed histograms (with embedded peak fitting, efficiency and shape characterisations) to a simple yes/no traffic light system to denote the presence or absence of an OSI relevant radionuclide.

        Speaker: Richard Britton (CTBTO)
      • 92
        Cs-137 Background Measurement in the Marine Environment of the Asia-Pacific Region to Support Emerging Challenges of On-Site Inspection (OSI) in Seas

        Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), On-Site Inspection (OSI) is the final CTBT tool to be used for proofing suspicious nuclear explosions after entry-into-force of the treaty. Over a decade, a huge attention has been paid on the development and testing of On-Site Inspection (OSI) procedures, techniques, and equipment to reveal whether or not underground nuclear testing actually occurred. New challenges causing concerns over international peace and security have recently been emerging and discussed. There might be a possibility of suspicious events in other than underground and underwater testing in marine & coastal seas is among them where nuclear explosions could take place. Not only further capacity building of potential on-site inspectors and development of appropriate OSI techniques but the radioactivity database of the OSI-relevant gamma-emitting radionuclides in marine & coastal environment is also needed. This recent work aims to review and summarize Cs-137 radioactivity in seawater, sediment, and biota from several countries in the Asia-Pacific region. These data would play a vital role as a reference/background data in case of any future underwater nuclear explosions. Through skill-enhanced inspectors, well-developed procedures, and comprehensive radioactivity data, the CTBT’s goal to end nuclear testing could be achieved.

        Speaker: Yutthana Tumnoi (Office of Atoms for Peace)
      • 93
        Gamma imaging for On-site Inspection: Reconstruction of an extended source in a restricted-access zone

        Under the Comprehensive-Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty a State Party can request an on-site inspection to establish whether or not a nuclear explosion has been carried out. Gamma radiation measurements would form a key component of the operation. However, the inspected State Party may declare up to 50 km^2 of restricted-access sites (RAs) each of area up to 4 km^2. We have developed the Silicon photomultiplier-based Compton Telescope for Safety and Security (SCoTSS) gamma imager and survey spectrometer. In a mobile survey along the perimeter of a restricted-access site, SCoTSS can perform a kind of triangulation to work out the distribution of radioactivity inside. This scenario has been enacted experimentally with controlled distribution of 10 GBq of radioactive lanthanum in an L-shaped pattern of area 3,200 m^2 followed by perimeter survey using the SCoTSS imager. We have developed tomographic methods to reconstruct the distribution of radioactivity using the images from multiple points of view. Despite the imager being constrained to locations on the ground over 200 m from the source, it is possible to localize the distribution of the radioactivity. These experimental results and methods will be presented and their potential application to restricted-access sites in on-site inspection will be discussed.

        Speaker: Laurel Sinclair (Canadian Hazards Information Service, Geological Survey of Canada (GSC))
      • 94
        UNE’s subsurface signatures, detected by active seismic surveys at the Semipalatinsk Test site

        One of the problems in OSI subsurface techniques development is uncertainty of potential target objects. In general approach (which includes OSI modelling) the zones of explosive disintegration are presented in simplified form – as a vacuous cavity with area of active crush around it. Real situation is described by more complicated model with presence of other disrupted areas, including spall zones and common fracturing areas, which could be detected using near-surface seismic survey. At the Semipalatinsk Test Site, where borehole UNEs conducted, an active seismic survey using diving waves method carried out. In the UNEs epicenters the spall zones detected to the average depth of 85 m. Their thickness depends from the yield of nuclear charge. P-wave velocity here less than in surrounding rocks on 1.0-1.5 km/s, S-wave – on 0.5 km/s. Under the spall zones to the average depth of 150 m the common fracturing layer revealed. Parameter of cracks density here changes from 0.15 to 0.45. Upper section disintegrated zones favour as indicators of conducted UNEs. Herewith the spall zones allow to define UNE's hypocenter position and its yield. In presentation we give methodical recommendations on active seismic technique applying during the OSI continuation period.

        Speaker: Andrey Belyashov (Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics​ of Siberian Branch Russian Academy of Sciences)
    • T3.5 Data Analysis Algorithms, Artificial Intelligence, Big Data and Deep Learning Forum (Hofburg)



      Poster presenter attendance on: Thursday 27 June from 16:30 to 18:15

      • 95
        Statistical Analysis to advance common understanding on SAUNA false positives hypothesis

        The Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is establishing an International Monitoring System (IMS) including 80 radionuclide stations, of which 40 will also be equipped with capabilities for measuring CTBT relevant xenon isotopes (Xe-131m, Xe-133, Xe-133m and Xe-135). The CTBTO International Data Centre (IDC) operates dedicated analysis software for processing spectral data from the IMS noble gas systems. The analysis of beta-gamma coincidence Noble Gas data is based on Net Count Calculation (NCC) method which, in its standard implementation, only performs interference corrections if a positive net signal is present. A retrospective analysis of reported detections seems to show overestimated rate of false positives for some isotopes. With the aim of improving the analysis results, a new configuration of the NCC method that systematically performs interference corrections was tested and the results are statistically compared with the standard method. Data for the period 2014-2016 from 7 SAUNA systems was used for the analysis of detection rates per detector and per isotope. Achieved results based on the normality test, skewness and kurtosis are visualized through QQ plots and probability density graphs. The presentation will compile the findings based on these statistical Figures Of Merit.

        Speaker: Rodah Daisy Nafuna Mulunda (CTBTO Preparatory Commission)
      • 96
        Unified implementation of NCC analysis algorithms for both current and next generation beta-gamma coincidence based noble gas systems

        Among the most promising technologies for next generation of noble gas systems are those based on Silicon PIN diodes for beta. It has been demonstrated that the high electron energy resolution of these detectors can significantly improve the discrimination power between Xe-131m and Xe-133m. The first next generation noble gas (NG-NG) systems SAUNA-III and SPALAX- NG developed, respectively, by FOI (Sweden) and CEA (France) are currently undergoing the one –year acceptance testing by CTBTO. Xenon International (USA) and MIKS (Russian federation) are following. Each system has specific design features that improve on current operational systems, which require customized software solutions to process resulting spectral data. In order to ensure smooth integration of NG-NG systems, the IDC initiated a new unified software development project for timely deployment into the production environment. The software is based on the Net Count Calculation (NCC) method. The implementation allows data from all systems to be automatically processed using the same software tool, taking into account inherent specificities. The new software has been rapidly developed and is available already during the acceptance testing period. The contribution presents the key features of the new unified implementation of NCC algorithms, for handling both current and next generation technologies.

        Speaker: Abdelhakim Gheddou (CTBTO Preparatory Commission)
      • 97
        Machine Learning to Categorize Radionuclide Spectra

        The poster briefly describes work using one- and two-dimensional Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) to categorize radionuclide spectra. The aim of this work is to automatically recognize 'normal' spectra and thus possibly reduce the work of the human analysts, which would need to focus on the unusual spectra which are more difficult to categorize.

        Speaker: Tryggvi Edwald (CTBTO)
      • 98
        A Semi-Automatic Method for Cepstral Depth Estimates for Sequences of Shallow Events

        In this study we describe an improved semi-automatic cepstral method for estimating the depth of very shallow earthquakes (depth < 3km ) and explosions. To estimate yield and location, this method is crucial, especially for explosions, for which the depth phase (pP) is not easily discernable from the first arrival (P). Unlike previous cepstral studies, our novel procedure utilizes the Power and the Complex Cepstrums, and homomorphic deconvolution in performing these estimates. The analysis includes two steps: at first, an optimal window is chosen, using a reduced set of metrics; second, metrics related to homomorphic deconvolution are applied on the best data windows, and a statistically most probably signal-echo delay is chosen. The metrics quantify: scalloping and unwrapping, power and complex cepstrum similarity; liftering adequacy; and success of the homomorphic deconvolution, which includes delay lag recovery, and deconvolved waveform comparison to the initial signal. Weights applied to each metric are set empirically, or based on the adequacy of the minimum –phase signal approximation. The algorithms are tested on a ground-truth database, with well-known depth events and on synthetic waveforms.

        Speaker: Ileana Tibuleac (Air Force Technical Application Center (AFTAC))
    • 99
      Poster Preview Session T1.2

      Poster presenter attendance on: Thursday 27 June from 14:30 to 16:00

    • 100
      Coffee Break
    • 101
      Poster Preview Session T1.2

      Poster presenter attendance on: Thursday 27 June from 14:30 to 16:00

    • T2.2 Challenges of On-Site Inspection Rittersaal (Hofburg)



      Poster presenter attendance on: Wednesday 26 June from 17:30 to 18:30

      • 102
        How to develop a credible scenario for large field exercises - Scenario Task Force activities

        Exercises play an integral role in efforts to build up the on-site inspection (OSI) element of the verification regime established by the CTBT, as they allow various inspection activities, techniques, processes and procedures to be tested manner against a robust and realistic scenario. The OSI Exercise Plan 2016-2020 foresees the conduct of three Build-up Exercises (BUE) covering all inspection phases. The development of a technically realistic, scientifically credible, rationally coherent and intellectually motivating scenario is crucial for testing OSI capabilities. Therefore, a Scenario Task Force (STF) was established, comprising selected technical experts from various State Signatories who, supported by the PTS, have being developing a contiguous scenario for all three exercises. The scenario shall aim to facilitate the testing of recently developed inspection techniques, updated procedures, new infrastructure, such as the Equipment, Storage and Maintenance Facility (ESMF) and the Operations Support Centre (OSC) and information management systems such as the Geospatial Information Management system for OSI (GIMO). The poster provides an overview of the objectives, scope and method of work of the STF, the challenges faced in creating a complex scenario, and the means by which an OSI scenario may stimulate the application of inspection techniques and inspection elements.

        Speaker: Gustavo Haquin Gerade (Israel Atomic Energy Commission)
      • 103
        The Potential use of Interferometric Techniques in the Location and Size Estimation of Suspected Test Sites

        Interferometric techniques using radar signals to map the elevation of the Earth´s surface or to map differences in the topography as a function of time have surged in applications in the last few years. Satellite interferometry, using successive radar images of the Earth's surface are now routinely used to monitor subsidence of sedimentary basins due to water of oil extraction, for example. Similar interferometric instrumentation is now also available to be mounted in drones at relatively low elevation, allowing a very dense cloud of observations leading to a very high spatial resolution. One of the main challenges of an on-site inspections is the rapid location of the potential test site within a relatively large area. For this purpose, a number of geophysical and geodetic techniques have been proposed for use at Entry into Force. Here, we propose and demonstrate that with the current availability of open-source satellite images and the low cost of drone-borne interferometry, the location of the suspected site where the nuclear test may have taken place will be revealed by subsidence or deformation of the ground surface. Thus interferometry may be the more economical method of a first order mapping the location of a suspected test site.

        Speaker: Gerardo Suarez Reynoso (Servicio Sismológico Nacional)
      • 104
        Utilization of Unmanned System for Environmental Sampling in CTBT OSI

        Areas contaminated with high or lethal radioactivity are deemed as the highest risk for the OSI inspectors if they stay or work there. Besides, other harsh environments, tough conditions, limited personnel also makes the challenge for an OSI system. These circumstances call for an advanced approach to deal with those problems. In this case, an unmanned system equipped with sampling gears could make the most of its advantages. We developed an unmanned OSI environmental sampling system prototype, and the laboratory and field tests have been carried out based on this prototype. The test results indicates that the system has the advantages of robust and functioning properly in harsh conditions with the capability of perception, communication, navigation, reliability, persistence, maintainability, mobility, etc. Using this system, the efficiency of OSI environmental sampling are greatly improved and the personnel security is guaranteed.

        Speaker: Dengke Wu (Shaanxi Thor Intelligent Equipment Co., Ltd.)
    • T3.5 Data Analysis Algorithms, Artificial Intelligence, Big Data and Deep Learning Forum (Hofburg)



      Poster presenter attendance on: Thursday 27 June from 16:30 to 18:15

      • 105
        Can high-precision methods of seismic monitoring for earthquakes and explosions find application for broad areas?

        Numerous studies have shown for small regions monitored by a sparse network, that modern methods of detecting and locating clusters of seismic events are orders-of-magnitude more effective that traditional methods (which analyze events one-at-a-time). But can modern methods be effective over broad areas? We describe practical experience answering this question in application to a large region of mainland East Asia, including a project to study the seismicity of Mongolia, and parts of southern Siberia, involving vigorous earthquake and mine-blasting activity, for a 5-year period (2012 to 2016) using open stations with significant archives. We report on experience gained with the many choices involved in: (1) identifying well-recorded seismic events; (2) obtaining their waveforms for use as templates; (3) cross-correlating templates against the continuous archive, to detect thousands of plausible new events having a pre-determined false alarm rate; (4) validating such detections; (5) measuring their relative arrival times as recorded at common stations; and then (6) relocating as many events as possible using double-difference methods. We report successful reduction of detection thresholds for parts of mainland East Asia, and substantial improvements in location precision.

        Speaker: Paul Granston Richards (Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University)
      • 106
        Continuous assessing of the Reviewed Event Bulletin with waveform cross correlation

        The Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) of the IDC includes more than 550,000 events with associated seismic and infrasound phases. Continuous comparison of the event hypotheses tested as REB events during routine interactive analysis with these historical events allows for significant improvement of the REB consistency. We use the method of waveform cross correlation (WCC) for assessment of the similarity between events on station-by-station basis. A list of master-events (MEs) for the WCC currently includes ~450,000 REB events with high and intermediate quality of waveforms templates. For automatic event hypotheses, only MEs within 15 degrees are used. To corroborate a daily REB, which includes events reviewed after automatic processing and those added manually, we also test all these events for similarity with MEs within 5 degrees. Two instances of the WCC-based assessment implemented: (1) automatic dual REB-based comparison with the historical REB events, and (2) an interactive spot check aimed at specific area, time period, event characteristics, stations, etc. The latter can be used as a tool for the IDC interactive review, as well as an instrument for the Special Studies and Expert Technical Analysis conducted under State’s Party and PTS, or On-Site Inspection request.

        Speaker: Mikhail Rozhkov (CTBTO)
      • 107
        Identification of repeating seismic events using diffusion maps

        In this work, an advanced machine learning technique named diffusion maps is applied for automatic identification of repeating seismic event clusters such as an aftershock sequence. Identification of such a sequence will help to lighten the analysts’ burden and to allow for timely production of reviewed bulletins. The proposed methods begin with a pre-processing stage in which a time–frequency representation is extracted from each seismogram while capturing common properties of seismic events and overcoming magnitude differences. Then diffusion maps are used in order to construct a low-dimensional model of the original data. In this new low-dimensional space, classification analysis is carried out. The algorithm’s performance is demonstrated on several seismic data sets that were recorded at the IMS stations, as the identification process can be carried out with no need of master templates for detecting new aftershocks. Moreover, the proposed method can be used together with the waveform cross-correlation detector as a verification tool for reducing the number of false alarms.

        Speaker: Yuri Bregman (Soreq Nuclear Research Center)
      • 108
        Machine learning for emulation of seismic-phase travel times in 3-D earth models

        We develop a machine learning approach to emulate seismic-phase travel time calculation through a 3-dimentional (3-D) Earth model. Our goal is to establish a computationally efficient way to implement 3-D Earth models in real-time monitoring systems and enable routine utilization of 3-D models in basic research. Seismic-phase travel times computed using a 3-D Earth model can reduce travel-time prediction error to approximately 0.6 seconds on average, leading to median event epicenter error of approximately 6 km for a network with azimuth gap less than 120°. Computation of travel times through a 3-D model can take 0.1 to 1.0 seconds, which is orders of magnitude too slow for real-time monitoring systems. We train a gradient-boosted regressor using travel times computed through the LLNL-G3D model. The training set is millions of travel times from randomly selected event locations to each network station, as well as randomly selected station locations. Preliminary tests find that machine learning effectively captures global effects like ellipticity and event depth. The effects of the 3-D model can be emulated with resulting errors dominated by the 3-D model itself, and computation time on the order of 10 micro-seconds. On-going research efforts include optimization of training-set sampling.

        Speaker: Stephen Myers (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory)
      • 109
        NET-VISA: Evaluation of event location performance compared to SEL3, and NEIC PDE

        The CTBTO's International Data Centre is in the final stages of implementing NET-VISA to perform the automatic association and location steps in the next generation IDC software. NET-VISA applies a Bayesian approach with a forward physical model using probabilistic representations of the propagation, station capabilities, background seismicity and noise statistics to obtain the maximum a posteriori solution to the highly nonlinear problems of phase association and event location. NET-VISA has been running operationally at the IDC in parallel with SEL3 since August 1, 2017. We compared 17 months between August 1, 2017 and January 1, 2019 of NET-VISA and SEL3 bulletins to the NEIC PDE bulletin as well as relocations of NET-VISA and SEL3 bulletins with the iLoc location algorithm using travel-time predictions from the global 3D RSTT model to assess the performance of NET-VISA in terms of completeness of the automatic events and location accuracy.

        Speaker: Istvan Bondar (ELKH Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences)
      • 110
        Recent Improvements on the Broadband Seismic Network of Iran (Implementing tuned Seiscomp3 and Automatic Online Moment Tensor Inversion)

        Iran plateau is known as one of the highest seismic active regions in the world. Therefore, it is very important to know quickly about the location and the source mechanism of large earthquakes. The broadband seismic network of Iran was established since 1998 with 4 broadband seismic stations by International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (IIEES). During last few years the total number of active seismic stations reaches 28. This number is expected to be increased up to 48 stations by the end of 2030. The increasing amount of seismic data receiving by the IIEES Data Center, has taken us to install and use the Seiscomp3 as an acquisition system to process the real-time data since 2017. Seiscomp3 leads to decreasing the time of 25 minutes manual event location to 5 minutes automatically. Moreover, we have utilized the Automatic Online Moment Tensor Inversion code (AOMTI) successfully, since 2018. Within 30 min after occurrence of an event with Mw > 4.5, the AOMTI starts to calculate the source. The final results including main-shock epicenter, last one month seismicity, focal mechanism, and waveform fits as a map will be sent immediately to predefined organizations.

        Speaker: Saeed SoltaniMoghadam (International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (IIEES))
      • 111
        The machine-learning tool NET-VISA from cradle to adulthood - The next generation system of the IDC and the SnT process

        A research concept presented on a poster at the very first SnT conference in 2011 has resulted in a fully-fledged operational software product named NET-VISA. It has become one of the tools used by the International Data Centre (IDC) waveform analysts to review and improve the SEL3 bulletin and produce the REB, one of the finest global seismological bulletins, and the only one to combine seismic and hydroacoustic sensing. The basic scientific concepts will be presented but the emphasis will be on the process of adopting, developing, adapting, testing, bulletproofing, and operationalizing the initial prototype. Extensive off-line testing involving State Signatories experts has shown that one of the expected benefits of NET-VISA -- a substantial reduction in missed events compared to Global Asociation (GA) -- has been realized. Currently, NET-VISA generates an automatic bulletin VSEL3, in parallel to SEL3. To take advantage of the reduced missed event rate, only the events which are complementary to the reviewed SEL3 are presented to the analysts. VSEL3 has been in place since January 2018 and tracing the origin of the REB events confirmed the significant reduction in missed events. If sufficient confidence is established, NET-VISA will replace GA in producing the SEL3.

        Speaker: Ronan Le Bras (CTBTO Preparatory Commission)
    • 112
      Panel Discussion: Where Do You See the IMS Monitoring Technologies Evolving for Enhanced Capability?

      Nurcan Meral Özel

      Roberto Betancourt Arocha
      Noriko Kayama

    • 113
      Poster Preview Session T2.3

      Poster presenter attendance on: Thursday 27 June from 14:30 to 16:00

    • 114
      Reception sponsored by Kinemetrics
    • 115
      Fishbowl Discussion: Reducing Uncertainty In Sensor Network
    • T1.3 Properties of the Ocean Rittersaal (Hofburg)



      Poster presenter attendance on: Thursday 27 June from 15:00 to 16:00

      • 116
        Analysis of hydroacoustic signals associated to the loss of the Argentinian ARA San Juan submarine

        On 15 November 2017, the loss of the Argentinian ARA San Juan submarine was detected by three IMS hydrophone stations, ranging from 6,000 km in the Atlantic Ocean to 12,400 km in the Indian Ocean. The great data quality and high signal to noise ratio on the two closest stations allow to identify direct and several reflected paths on different types of bathymetric structures. An original location method will be presented, which jointly utilizes a small subset of arrivals associated to both submarine event and a controlled depth charge realized by the Argentinian Navy close to the last known position of the submarine. Location results and associated uncertainties will be compared to the recovered wreck position. Broadband full waveform modelling and cepstral analysis techniques were also performed to try to separate source and propagation effects.

        Speaker: Julien Vergoz (CEA/CENTRE Ile-de-France)
      • 117
        Calculation of Hydroacoustic Propagation and Conversion to Seismic Phases at T-Stations

        The IMS Hydroacoustic network consists of 6 Hydrophone stations and 5 T-stations. The T-stations are high-frequency seismic stations (sample rates of 100 Hz) situated on islands or coastal stations and intended primarily to capture signals from in-water explosions. However, while there are numerous recordings of impulsive-like signals at the hydrophone stations, recordings of this type of signal at the T-stations are relatively rare. This is because the conversion of the seismic signal as it propagates from ocean to land is both complex and characterized by strong attenuation. To improve the understanding of this phase conversion at T-stations, we are performing numerical calculations using the spectral element code SPECFEM2D, modelling the underwater propagation along a path leading towards each T-station and the phase conversion through the ocean/land interface to the seismometer. Environmental information from a variety of sources was gathered to construct the earth and ocean models used in the calculations. The goal of this part of the work is to provide a set of calculated waveforms to complement the limited set of observed waveforms and to assist in the characterization of arrivals from explosion-generated hydroacoustic waves at T-stations.

        Speaker: Jeffry Stevens (Leidos)
      • 118
        CTBTO’s contribution to the search of the missing Argentine submarine ARA San Juan

        The Argentine submarine ARA San Juan went missing on 15th November 2017. The last confirmed contact was from a location around 600 kilometres offshore the San Jorge Gulf, Argentina. In order to provide information which could potentially help in the search for the ARA San Juan, CTBTO analysed data recorded by its International Monitoring System (IMS). Two IMS hydroacoustic hydrophone stations, namely HA10 in the Atlantic Ocean and HA04 in the southern Indian Ocean, recorded an unusual signal of unknown nature which originated at the vicinity of the last known location of the ARA San Juan. On 1st December 2017, in order to confirm the accuracy of the location of this acoustic anomaly, the Argentine Navy deployed a depth charge to the North of the last known position of the submarine. This signal was also detected by the same two IMS hydrophone stations and localized to within 37 km of the declared depth charge location. On 17th November 2018, the ARA San Juan was found on the seabed at 900 metres depth, very close to the location originally indicated by CTBTO. This presentation reviews the equipment and signal analysis employed by the scientific team at CTBTO to accomplish this feat.

        Speaker: Peter Louring Nielsen (CTBTO Preparatory Commission)
      • 119
        Distributed detection framework and three-dimensional propagation model for acoustic detection of baleen whales.

        The HA08 hydrophone triads to the north and south of Diego Garcia constantly record low frequency whale calls. This work builds detectors for different types of blue whales; the Antarctic, Sri Lankan, Madagascan, and an unidentified type. There are significant challenges for constructing detectors. The calls are complicated, and show variations in intensity across frequency bands, and the three hydrophones within a triad. There is hence a variability to the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) available for detection. A major cause for the variability is the scattering due to the island bathymetry. This work builds a robust framework to overcome these issues in two stages. The first uses subspace approaches to detect calls across respective frequency bands. The second compensates for the SNR variability to improve the detection rates. In this stage, a distributed approach fuses detections across call frequencies, and the hydrophone triads. The other focus of this work is building a three dimensional propagation model to predict sound scattering, which helps suggest improvements to the detector. Finally, the work uses a subset of calls (recorded over a year) to estimate the probability of detection. The new method has higher detection rates than results previously published in the literature.

        Speaker: Nikita Roseann Pinto (Indian Institute of Technology Madras)
      • 120
        Enabling Technology to Extend Life and Utility of Hydroacoustic Systems

        The existing infrastructure of the six Hydroacoustic System spans remote locations of the world. The first of these systems at Diego Garcia is reaching its 20 year life and consideration to the maintenance and replacement of the systems is ongoing. This presentation will discuss opportunities to incorporate advancements in active junction box design, facilitating the inclusion of wet-mate underwater fiber optic connections in any future upgrade, replacement, or repair of these systems. Recent analysis of the in-water triplet has shown that these units are likely to last much longer than the 20 year life objective. During any future maintenance or repair, the inclusion of a junction box with wet-mate fiber optic connectors could help to improve the serviceability of the system and could provide opportunity to expand the system to new co-located science research.

        Speaker: John Cummins (L3 MariPro, Inc.)
      • 121
        Monte Carlo simulation tool for maritime operations risk reduction and enhancement of IMS hydroacoustic network sustainment

        Conducting successful and timely at-sea installation and sustainment of International Monitoring System (IMS) hydroacoustic (HA) stations requires proactive management of the risks associated with challenging ocean environmental conditions, such as those which prevail at remote IMS HA sites. To support the planning of maritime operations for the establishment of hydroacoustic station HA04 at the Crozet Islands located in the Southern Ocean, one of the world’s most challenging ocean environments, the IMS HA team used an in-house Monte Carlo simulation tool to estimate installation weather delay days using as input a database of historical ocean weather records available from the local meteorological station, together with a breakdown of maritime operational steps. The model’s predictions were found to be in good agreement with the actual outcome of the installation. Based on this experience APL-UW were approached for the development of a sophisticated Monte Carlo Mission Time Simulation (MMTS) tool for more general at-sea operations performed at various locations. MMTS uses NOAA WaveWatch III oceanographic re-analysis data for the assessment of ocean weather together with a detailed mission planner for all stages of the maritime operations. The MMTS has potential applications to other missions associated with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization.

        Speaker: Mario Zampolli (CTBTO)
    • T5.2 Experience with and Possible Additional Contributions to Issues of Global Concern such as Disaster Risk Mitigation, Climate Change Studies and Sustainable Development Goals Forum (Hofburg)



      Poster presenter attendance on: Thursday 27 June from 16:30 to 18:15

      • 122
        CTBTO for UN 2030: Empowering Diplomacy through Science in South Asia

        This project proposal will consider the instrumentalisation of diplomacy through scientific investigation to strengthen support for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and its verification regime. It will look at CTBT ratification through a step-by-step, non-traditional security approach by showcasing the International Monitoring System’s (IMS) civilian potential and its benefits to a country’s security objectives, whether it is tsunami warnings off India's southern coast or landslides in the Himalayas. It will involve a demonstration of how states that have pledged to the UN 2030 Agenda on Sustainable Development can be incentivised to translate intent into action by utilising information from the IMS’ radionuclide, hydroacoustic and infrasound technologies for climate change and disaster risk knowledge and monitoring. It will attempt to document learnings and benefits accruing to neighbouring states that host IMS stations on data use for environment and climate change monitoring that are of relevance to India given the geo-physical similarities. The objective reality of the scientific benefits of CTBTO resources for a country's sustainable development goals will be instructive in making the the foreign policies of those that oppose the CTBT more politically aligned with it, with the eventual goal of contributing to narrative change in South Asia.

        Speaker: Ruhee Neog (Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (IPCS))
      • 123
        CTBTO IMS Contribution to SDG:14 Life Below Water

        Tsunami waves, volcano eruptions, underwater explosions, whales, cyclones are the major sources of hydro acoustic signal from all around the world. Those signals are verified by the CTBTO IMS, having 3 out of 11 HA IMS stations located in the Indian ocean. Surprisingly, insufficient research has been conducted regarding the area’s sustainability, particularly incorporating CTBTO capacity to contribute. In this study, the notable records of HA04, HA08, HA01 (IMS) have been analyzed between 2016 and 2018 pursuing the purpose to define the sources of hydro-acoustic signals. There are more than 4 Cyclones in the Indian Ocean annually and combined with the local seismic stations they are now able to track the cyclones path like the accurately spotted 22/12/18 Tsunami wave . Previous research shows IMS capacity to detect whales and other species . Annual Whale Festival (June-August) has also been monitored in the eastern part of Madagascar . In this regard the diverse dimensions of IMS contribution to SDG14: Life below water are discovered.

        Speaker: Ilya Kursenko (Youth Group Member)
      • 124
        Feasibility assessment for geothermal potential in Las Trincheras - Mariara, Venezuela

        The purpose of this research is to investigate the potentiality for a geothermal system that could be in place in the locality of Las Trincheras-Mariara, Carabobo State, Venezuela. In the context of, CTBT and the Sustainable Development Goal. The area is characterized by the presence of hot springs and extensive low-intensity seismicity. The main events magnitudes are 4.7 and 4.9, respectively. In addition, understanding of the high swarm seismicity observed in the area in the year 2018, would derived on a better-constrained localization of the seismic events with the implementation of a more robust localization technique that will involve simultaneous multiple event locations with traditional focal mechanism analysis; Moreover, with our results we should impact on another important area of social interest such as the Seismic Microzonation studies for the cities of Valencia and Maracay. Therefore, this project involves the incorporation of PTS temporal local seismic stations to densify the stations in the area and the update of geological and geophysical information in order to accomplish a better scientific understanding of the given geothermal process.

        Speaker: Keyla Carolina Ramirez Loaiza (Fundacion Venezolana de Investigaciones Sismologicas (FUNVISIS))
      • 125
        Hazard mitigation analysis of the Anak Krakatau eruption and its tsunami (22 December 2018)

        Krakatau volcano formed as impact of Indo-Australian and Eurasian plate activity during millions years. It’s located at Sunda strait, between Java and Sumatra islands. Krakatau volcano was erupted in 1883, with eruption scale estimated 30 times atomic bombs of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The eruption cause more than 36.000 casualties and generate tsunami with maximum run-up around 30 meter in Java and Sumatra. The devastating eruption in 1883 made Krakatau volcano collapse. The top of Krakatau volcano destroyed and cause new smaller volcano appear that called Anak Krakatau volcano. Every year, Anak Krakatau volcano spouting volcanic ash on small scale and grows 0.5 meter in average per month. On 22 December 2018 occurred eruption Anak Krakatau volcano that generate large tsunami in Banten and Lampung and cause hundreds casualties. Based on Geospatial Information Agency of Indonesia (BIG), tsunami arrived in the land on 21:30 local time. We made analysis and simulation by difference origin time (OT) of Anak Krakatau eruption and tsunami arrival to proposed a tsunami early warning for local people in Banten and Lampung. We used the CGJI (InaTEWS) and LEM (CTBTO) seismic sensors in this research.

        Speaker: Kurniati Retno Dewi (NDC Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics Agency (BMKG))
      • 126
        Infrasound monitoring of active volcanoes at local and regional scale

        Infrasound has great potentials to monitor ongoing volcanic explosive eruptions at source-to-receiver distances up to 1000s of km. However, while at short distances (< few 10s km) its operational use is feasible and well demonstrated, at long range its efficiency is still debated, mostly because of time varying propagation effects and the ubiquity of infrasound signals produced by multiple sources. We present infrasound array analysis of eruptive activity at Etna volcano, Italy, performed at local (< 10 km) and regional distances (> 500 km) and apply detection algorithm to identify in real-time ongoing eruptions. We show how frequency-dependent semi-empirical relationships derived from parabolic equation simulations coupled with realistic atmospheric profiles allows to correct for attenuation and reconstruct the pressure time history with great accuracy. This allows applying the same threshold parameters defined for the local array. We show how regional arrays at distanced of >1000 km are able to pick eruptive activity of Etna with an efficiency of 87% and no false alerts. Considering the latency of ~1 hour related to propagation time, we show that remote infrasound detection of eruptive activity would be available before the actual notification, thus opening new perspective of real-time volcano monitoring at regional scale.

        Speaker: Emanuele Marchetti (University of Firenze)
    • 127
      Youth Art Competition Award Ceremony
    • 128
      Coffee Break
    • 129
      Panel Discussion: Civil Applications: Towards Monitoring Near Earth Objects Impacting The Atmosphere

      Preceding by Romana Kofler, UNOOSA

    • 130
      Lunch Break
    • 131
      Highlight Talk 3: Knowledge Of The Geosphere Structure And Dynamics – Knowledge Gained From 20 Years Of The CTBT - Structure and Dynamics of the Ocean
    • 132
      Panel Discussion: Threats Of Tomorrow: Use Of Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning In Predicting And Responding To Malware
    • T1.3 Properties of the Ocean Rittersaal (Hofburg)



      Poster presenter attendance on: Thursday 27 June from 15:00 to 16:00

      • 133
        OOI Cabled Array Winched Profiler Data for Improved Hydroacoustic Analyses

        The Ocean Observatories Initiative Cabled Array (OOI-CA) commenced operation in 2014 with two trunk cables extending offshore from the central Oregon Coast, that incorporate multiple science nodes which host approximately 140 commercial and custom oceanographic instruments. With an operational life of 25 years, this undersea network delivers ample power and real-time data acquisition to support sustained, continuous observations of a wide range of oceanographic parameters over long periods of time. While many of these instruments are installed on the seafloor, the Cabled Array includes three novel winched profilers, designed and constructed at APL-UW, located on subsea moorings on the continental shelf, the abyssal plain, and flanking an active undersea volcano. These highly capable profilers can each host up to 15 instruments and transit vertically from 200 m to just below the surface up to nine times per day, unattended for one year between servicing missions. Among the data provided by these systems are CTD observations made at 1 Hz. Temperature and salinity profiles will be presented over the five-year operation of these profilers and related to the large scale oceanography off the coast of Oregon. Adding ancillary instrumentation to CTBTO assets could allow similar insights in other oceans.

        Speaker: Lisa Zurk (University of Washington, Applied Physics Laboratory)
      • 134
        Reducing ambiguity in hydroacoustic triangulation through consideration of three-dimensional propagation features

        Ambiguity in triangulation of events recorded on the IMS hydroacoustic network depend on the accuracy in knowing when these events occurred. Considering only the direct "line-of-sight" propagation path to a station, three stations are needed to pinpoint an event time. To overcome this requirement, consideration of additional signal features relating to the propagation characteristics can improve triangulation. Two such signal features are: (1) modal dispersion characteristics of the direct path; and (2) delayed out-of-plane arrivals caused by bathymetric refraction. Detection of out-of-plane arrivals effectively add additional "virtual" stations, while characteristics of modal dispersion correspond to the propagation distance. Thus when such signal features are present in combination with the back-azimuth information, source triangulation can be accomplished from a single station. An examination of these signal features within two impulsive acoustic events, one associated with the loss of the Argentine submarine San Juan and the other a planned depth charge deployed two weeks later as part of the initial search, demonstrate the ability to triangulate with limited receiving stations (note both of these events were detected at HA10 and HA04). Furthermore, the propagation models used to capture these signal features also provide an assessment of triangulation error caused by uncertain oceanography.

        Speaker: David Dall'Osto (University of Washington, Applied Physics Laboratory)
    • T5.2 Experience with and Possible Additional Contributions to Issues of Global Concern such as Disaster Risk Mitigation, Climate Change Studies and Sustainable Development Goals Forum (Hofburg)



      Poster presenter attendance on: Thursday 27 June from 16:30 to 18:15

      • 135
        Amplifying the impact of CTBTO data for emergency response and climate change monitoring

        The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization’s (CTBTO) International Monitoring System is a unique resource of reliable data that can be utilized to monitor many climate and man-made catastrophes. Our project aims to magnify the impact of this data by exploring new relationships between the CTBTO and social media platforms that include crisis and emergency response programs, which often have a broader and more immediate reach than governments or NGOs in the face of disasters. Specifically, we will first identify the range of incidents that the IMS system is capable of monitoring and exactly how this monitoring can bolster emergency response planning. Subsequently, we will identify accessible and high-impact platforms with which the CTBTO can partner, such as the Twitter Alerts program or Facebook’s emergency safety check. We expect the layering of CTBTO IMS data, social media, and crisis response tools to enhance the efficiency of emergency response and evacuation. Additionally, by collecting first-hand accounts of these catastrophes on social media platforms through the partnership, the CTBTO can paint a more holistic picture of the impact of these events on the ground. In turn, this could enrich ongoing climate change and natural disaster monitoring efforts being conducted across the United Nations.

        Speaker: Raymond Wang (No Affiliations)
      • 136
        Renewable Energy and Sustainable Development in the Light of Environmental Security

        Renewable energy is one of the most efficient ways to achieve sustainable development, there are several opportunities for Renewable Energy Sources, as well as for nuclear technologies to contribute to mitigating climate change and to promote sustainable development (SD) the picture of nuclear power’s role is significantly different within different countries and different world regions. In a few countries large numbers of nuclear power plants are playing a key role in supplying their countries’ electricity, the employment of this energy in a peaceful splitting is synonyms with sustainable development which is the other takes into account the current needs of the community without touching the rights of future generations but this link must take into account the important aspect to the environment with environmental safety system so that there becomes integration between peaceful nuclear industry and sustainable development in the light of environmental security, in this framework, the main scope of the present study is we will highlight through this study, the role played by the alternative energies in achieving sustainable development, and discuss the most important environmental and security challenges of nuclear plants and the importance of their peaceful use as a source of sustainable development and environmental security,

        Speaker: Sura Raad Mohammed Mohammed (Iraqi National Monitoring Authority)
      • 137
        The catastrophic failure of the iron-ore tailings dam: the worst environmental disaster in Brazil

        The dam break of the Fundão dam on November 5th 2015, in the municipality of Mariana, Minas Gerais State, produced the worst environmental disaster ever observed in Brazil. A huge mud flow destroyed a nearby town, causing 19 deaths and leaving a trail of destruction as it advanced along the Doce River up to the ocean for 680 km. This flood of slurry resulted in a lack of potable water and challenging environmental impacts. Moreover, one hour before the dam break, four small events with M2.5 occurred approximately 1 km from the dam. This occurrence renewed Brazil’s interest in reservoir-triggered seismicity. Since then, inspections have been intensified on mining companies that have tailings dam, especially regarding the follow-up of technical safety standards and handling of toxic material. The surveillance process has become increasingly important in particular during the monitoring of detonations in the quarries since they can trigger fractures and / or weak zones and increase the failure rate of the dams. The explosions in mines produce seismic and infrasonic signals and this work aims to verify the synergy between the seismic and infrasonic technologies using data of the Brazilian IMS stations PS07 and IS09.

        Speaker: Brandow Neri (University of Brasilia, Seismological Observatory)
      • 138
        The CTBTO and Goal 11: Using the IDC to Make Cities Safer and More Inclusive Through Disaster Preparedness Laws (CTBTxSDGs Innovation Challenge)

        Our project seeks to explore how the IDC can be incorporated into disaster preparedness laws, to promote safer and more sustainable cities in furtherance of SDG 11. Noting that disasters disproportionately affect slums, we will also explore how advocates for slum upgrading and affected communities can utilize IDC data as evidence to advocate for more inclusive preparedness laws. First, we will determine whether disaster preparedness laws in affected and at-risk countries include a component of risk detection and early warning systems. We will then assess how the IDC can serve as a resource to strengthen risk detection and early warning provisions—for example, by utilizing moment magnitude estimates to predict disaster risk. Based on this assessment, we will propose ways to explicitly reference the IDC in disaster preparedness laws through model legislation. As an attachment to our model law, we will include recommendations on how slum upgrading advocates and affected communities can utilize IDC data in urban risk assessments, to advocate for more inclusive preparedness laws. Specifically, we will explore how seismic hazard maps, combined with slum mapping by organizations like the World Bank and UN, can better assess risk.

        Speaker: Brenna Gautam (Georgetown University Law School)
    • T1.4 Interaction Among the Earth’s Subsystems Rittersaal (Hofburg)



      Poster presenter attendance on: Thursday 27 June from 16:30 to 18:15

      • 140
        Atmospheric Events energy estimation based on Seismic Data.

        The estimation of the released event energy is part of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty organization analysis. For events occurring underwater and underground the methods for energy estimation are well developed. However, for atmospheric events the accuracy of the methods which rely on data recorded by infrasound stations is not good enough. In the past few years the passage of energy between earth, ocean an the atmosphere is investigated. It is shown that underground events are recorded by infrasound stations and atmospheric events by seismic stations. The use of the seismic records for estimating the atmospheric event energy release seems promising as it reduce the dependency on the varying atmosphere. In the fifties of the twentieth century, there were theoretical works on the energy transfer between the atmosphere and the earth. But, as the monitoring networks were undeveloped, the number of observations to support the calculation was limited. In this work, we investigate, using the data recorded by the International Monitoring System, if more reliable energy estimation of an atmospheric event, can be achieved based on seismic data.

        Speaker: Yochai Ben Horin (Soreq Nuclear Research Center)
      • 141
        Complex propagation of explosion-generated infrasound revealed by the large-scale AlpArray seismic network

        On September 1st, 2018 a devastating explosion occurred on the facility of an oil refinery near Ingolstadt, Germany. We analyzed data of 400 permanent and temporary seismic stations and find strong seismo-acoustic signals on more than 80 seismic stations. The infrasound signal is detectable on seismic stations within 10 - 400 km from the source, with 40 km spatial resolution. We confirm the explosion site both by the seismic and seismo-acoustic arrivals. Apart from seismic P- and S-waves, we identified three separate acoustic phases with celerities of 332, 292, and 250 m/s, respectively, each of which has a particular spatial pattern of positive detections at the ground. Seismo-acoustic amplitudes are strongly affected by the type of seismic installation but still allow insight into regional infrasound attenuation. Our observations likely represent tropospheric, stratospheric, and thermospheric phases. We performed 3D acoustic raytracing to validate our findings. Tropospheric and thermospheric arrivals are to some extent reproduced by the atmospheric model. However, raytracing does not predict the observed acoustic stratospheric ducts. Our findings suggest that small-scale variations had considerable impact on the propagation of infrasound generated by the explosion.

        Speaker: Florian Fuchs (University of Vienna)
      • 142
        Modulation of gas fluxes at the soil-atmosphere interface due to coupled physical, chemical and biological effects

        Following an underground nuclear explosion, emission of radioactive gases to the atmosphere is controlled by properties of the geological media and the applied pressures and temperatures. These conditions are highly variable in space and time, leading to modulations of gas fluxes at the soil-atmosphere interface that must be understood for proper detection of nuclear events both through the IMS and during OSI. We focused on the soil system, characterized by variable water content and plant growth. We developed an improved set-up to conduct gaseous tracer experiments under controlled conditions mimicking natural ones. Although a constant tracer gas flux was applied at the base of a soil column, the measured gas fluxes at the surface varied by ca. +300% to -100% within hours to days compared to the injected one. This is due to changes in the water distribution in the soil, controlled by multiple effects of physical, chemical and biological origins. Modulations of the radioxenon or argon-37 fluxes to the atmosphere must then be taken into account for better determinations, especially when these fluxes are integrated in space and time. This can be predicted by numerical modeling knowing the environmental conditions.

        Speaker: Eric Pili (Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA))
    • 143
      Poster Preview Session T3.5

      Poster presenter attendance on: Thursday 27 June from 16:30 to 18:15

    • 144
      Coffee Break
    • 145
      Poster Preview Session T3.5

      Poster presenter attendance on: Thursday 27 June from 16:30 to 18:15

    • T2.1 Characterization of Treaty-Relevant Events Forum (Hofburg)



      Poster presenter attendance on: Thursday 27 June from 14:30 to 16:00

      • 146
        Physical Characterization of filters from German and Sweden radiological monitoring networks with Ru-106 from 2017

        In late September and early October 2017, the International Monitoring System and several national radiation surveillance networks in Eastern and Western Europe reported low levels of the airborne radionuclide contaminants ruthenium-106 and ruthenium-103, with both species being CTBT relevant. Filters from the national networks of Sweden operated by the Swedish Defence Research Agency, Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut (FOI), and of Germany operated by the German meteorological services Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) containing ruthenium-106 were characterized physically, including coincident gamma high resolution gamma spectroscopy, electron microscopy, autoradiography, and species solubility. The filters were very radiopure, with no other radioisotope component in excess of 0.002 fraction of the ruthenium activity. Electron microscopy and autoradiography indicate the ruthenium was highly dispersed in domains likely less than a micron in size. Solubilization studies discount the possibility of ruthenium existing as tetroxide (RuO4) on the filter and demonstrate that 50 to 60% of the species present can be extracted in polar solvents including water. The initial conditions of the aerosolized material prior to dispersal are considered in a discussion of this important CTBT verification scenario, including the analytical techniques available for event characterization.

        Speaker: Ian Hoffman (Radiation Protection Bureau)
      • 147
        Possibilities to identify cavity due to UNE using seismic wave fields

        The resonance seismometry is one of the CTBT’s permitted techniques during OSI. Numerical modeling of seismic wave fields makes it possible to investigate resonance phenomena and their signatures in free-surface records. The necessary condition for reasonable results is an optionally accurate and computationally efficient numerical-modeling tool together with a sufficient set of realistic structural models. Based on extensive review of the available literature we have developed 3D realistic models of the underground structure after an UNE. The most general model consists of cavity, chimney with apical void, crushed zone, fractured zone, environment and free surface. We performed extensive numerical modeling of seismic wave fields due to plane-wave excitation (representing regional and distant events), near point double-couple sources (representing aftershocks) and seismic ambient noise. We then comprehensively analyzed the simulated wave fields in the time, frequency and time-frequency domains. In a seismic wave field due to a distant source it was possible to identify and locate cavity. A seismic wave field generated by an aftershock was much more difficult to interpret in terms of the cavity presence due to strong effects of a radiation pattern. Analysis of seismic noise makes it possible to identify cavity at least for relatively shallow cavities.

        Speaker: Jozef Kristek (Data and Analysis Centre of the National Network of Seismic Stations)
      • 148
        Seismic full moment tensor analysis of nuclear explosions in North Korea

        We estimate seismic full moment tensors and their uncertainties for seven events at the North Korea nuclear test site, consisting of six declared nuclear tests and one event, interpreted as a cavity collapse, that occurred 8 minutes after the declared test. We also analyze two earthquake events that occurred to the south and were recorded by the same set of stations. We perform a grid search over the six-dimensional space of moment tensors, generating synthetic waveforms at each moment tensor grid point and then evaluating a misfit function between the observed and synthetic waveforms. For each moment tensor we characterize its uncertainty in terms of the variation in waveform misfit on the eigenvalue lune, a probability density function for moment tensor source type, and a confidence curve for the probability that the true moment tensor lies within the neighborhood of the best-fitting moment tensor. We find that the moment tensor source types are clearly separated for the six declared nuclear test events, the collapse event, and the two earthquakes. Moment tensors for the six explosion events can be represented as a sum of a double couple and a crack tensor whose plane is near horizontal.

        Speaker: Celso Alvizuri (NORSAR)
    • T3.1 Design of Sensor Systems and Advanced Sensor Technologies Rittersaal (Hofburg)



      Poster presenter attendance on: Thursday 27 June from 14:30 to 16:00

      • 149
        Description and results from a feedback digital Infrasound detector system

        Since the signing of Comprehensive Nuclear test-ban Treaty CTBT in 1996 and the establishment of IMS International Monitoring Systems for the verification of nuclear explosions significant improvements has been achieved in monitoring systems. . The improvements in seismic detection systems and the technology has substantially surpassed the development and the sophistication of infrasound monitoring systems. A feedback infrasound system based on a new topology and concept is described. Design details and results will be presented. The described feedback Infrasound system eliminates all the shortcomings of existing infrasound detection technology. The designed low noise digital Infrasound (micro-barometer) system provides an improved method of calibration. The frequency response and gain of the feedback detector is dependent only on the electrical parameters of the feedback- loop providing a stable and highly accurate detector. It will be shown that the digital Infrasound detector response to seismic signals is virtually eliminated. The system provides three independent outputs, these being: output proportional to pressure, derivative of pressure and second derivative of pressure.

        Speaker: Cansun Guralp (Gaiacode Ltd)
      • 150
        Establishment of a network of political and scientific cooperation between CTBTO and the Great Lakes region to contribute to sustainable development.

        The Great Lakes region is hit by geological hazards that disrupt sustainable development in the region. Most of the cities in the region are located in the East African Rift. This is the case of some cities in which the vulnerability is on a high level. CTBTO has installed two seismographic stations in Kenya and one in Uganda. The ongoing maintenance of these stations by CTBTO has provided a good scientific contribution to the understanding of this region. However, the part of the Great Lakes remains empty, so that, it would be very important that the network be extended by establishing stations in the DRC, Rwanda and Burundi, which can help to allow the region and contribute to sustainable regional development. This regional collaboration will contribute to: - Awakening of the consciousness of those governments that seem to have forgotten CTBT, - The establishment of some seismic stations in the region which can help now to assess weakness areas in wich buildings must be restricted, and to assess the seismic risks in the region. - Strengthen peace in the region through the inter-institutional and intergovernmental cooperation network Key Words: Seismic stations, Regional collaboration, sustainable development, seismic and volcanic activity

        Speaker: Didier Birimwiragi Namogo (Goma Volcano Observatory)
      • 151
        Estimation of Antineutrino Registration as a Method of Monitoring Nuclear Explosions

        As a result of nuclear weapon testing,certain markers appear,and that allows to identify a nuclear explosion.Modern technologies and methods allow hiding radioactive isotopes after an explosion or camouflage seismic signals,but the means and methods of masking antineutrinos do not exist.Antineutrino is a particle that is the only true real-time nuclear signature from a nuclear explosion that spreads long distances through different environments.In many respects, the antineutrino burst is the ideal signal for a nuclear detonation.In each nuclear explosion,a large number of neutrinos are formed,with nuclear beta-decay of fission products about 1024 neutrinos are produced per kilowatt energy release during the fission in a time interval of about 10 seconds.They are isotropically removed from the source at the speed of light.The burst of antineutrino produces is unique.Since the substance around the nuclear device does not noticeably affect the antineutrino,the signal does not depend on the environment in which the explosion occurred. We propose to build a 1 km3 detector at the South Pole for the purpose of detecting nuclear tests.The introduction of antineutrino sensors into the International Monitoring System will help to unequivocally detect the fact of nuclear weapon testing,to strengthen trust between countries and to reduce the number of inspections.

        Speaker: Vadim Grichuk (National Research Nuclear University MEPhI)
      • 152
        Exploiting the Tailorable Nanoporosity of Metal-Organic Frameworks for In-Situ Identification of Radioisotopes

        Radioactive xenon isotopes are signatures of clandestine underground nuclear tests. Their low concentrations remote from the event require collection and separation from large quantities of air using porous carbon sorbents. Unfortunately, due to their short half-lives, large dilution factors, and the long times required to remotely acquire samples, information concerning the time, location, abundance of specific isotopes produced in the event can be lost. Consequently, detection strategies are needed that enable much more rapid isotope identification. We will describe in-situ radioisotope identification by beta-gamma coincidence in a portable system enabled by Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs), a new, highly tailorable class of sorbents with surface areas as high as 7000 m2/g. MOFs possess a combination of properties unique among nanoporous materials. First, their ultrahigh surface areas facilitate selective adsorption of weakly interacting gases such as xenon. Second, established structure-function relationships governing MOF gas uptake enable rational design of materials optimized for specific applications (e.g., to selectively adsorb Xe). We demonstrate that MOFs enable the identification of radioactive xenon isotopes virtually in real time when used in a novel high-pressure detection system we designed. Our MOF-enabled detection concept could dramatically improve the reliability, timeliness, and information content of systems used for CTBT verification.

        Speaker: Mark Donald Allendorf (Sandia National Laboratories)
    • 153
      Panel Discussion: On-Site Inspections Triggered By Events In Complex, Dynamic Or Challenging Environments
    • 154
      Reception sponsored by ISTI
    • 155
      The NDC and NDC Forum Evening Event
    • 156
      Demonstration Of How Background Measurement Campaigns Support IMS Noble Gas Monitoring Systems
    • T2.1 Characterization of Treaty-Relevant Events Forum (Hofburg)



      Poster presenter attendance on: Thursday 27 June from 14:30 to 16:00

      • 157
        Seismic Spectral Ratios between North Korean Nuclear tests: Implications for their Seismic Sources

        Seismic spectral ratios between the 2017 North Korean nuclear test(NKT2017) and four other Korean tests conducted in 2009(NKT2009), 2013(NKT2013), January, 2016(NKT2016J) and September, 2016 (NKT2016S) are investigated. All the observed teleseismic P-wave spectral ratios exhibit a unique notch at approximately 2.5Hz that is not observed for regional P- and Lg-wave spectral ratios. Meanwhile, the network-averaged Lg-wave spectral ratio is similar to that of regional P-wave, but with the source corner frequencies significantly reduced. We demonstrated that the observed notch of teleseismic P-wave spectral ratios may be well modeled by interference between pP- and P-wave, while regional P-wave spectral ratios may be well fitted with source spectral ratios predicated by classical explosion source models including MM71, DJ91 and their two hybrids. Results obtained indicate that for NKT2017’s buried depth in the range of 600-1100m, the MM71-related models give a yield estimation about 100-300kt for NKT2017, 3-7kt for NKT2019, 6-15kt for NKT2013 and NKT2016J and 10-25kt for NKT2016S, while yield sizes obtained by model DJ91 are much smaller.

        Speaker: Ping Jin (Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology)
      • 158
        The 2017 North Korean Nuclear Test - A Comprehensive Multi-Technology Analysis

        On September 3rd 2017 official channels of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea announced the successful test of a fusion bomb. This would be a major step in the nuclear program of North Korea. This study provides a multi-technology analysis of the 2017 North Korean event and its aftermath using a wide array of geophysical methods (seismology, infrasound, remote sensing, radionuclide monitoring, and atmospheric transport modeling). The depth of the event, its strength in terms of radiated high- and low-frequency seismic energy, the contribution of possible faulting or slope instability processes, the near-surface damage in the test area, explosive yield and the proof of whether fission products are detected as atmospheric tracers are key questions to be answered. The multi-technology and multi-methodology analysis presented in this study clearly indicates that the September 2017 North Korean event was in fact a nuclear test and that even in the phase of before its entry into force, the CTBTO verification regime has again demonstrated its readiness with respect to the recent North Korean nuclear test.

        Speaker: Peter Jost Gaebler (Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR))
      • 159
        UK NDC Analysis of IMS Radionuclide Events near to North Korea

        The UK National Data Centre (NDC) has developed a custom radionuclide analysis pipeline that has been integral to the NDC’s capability to utilise data from the IMS. A number of novel software tools have been conceived to aid review of IMS events and these have been put to use in a study of the North Korean Region. By considering known emitters of radionuclides and relating these to detections at JPX38 (Takasaki), it has been possible to demonstrate the sensitivity of JPX38 to North Korean underground nuclear tests (UGT), as well as other sources of radioxenon in the region.

        Speaker: Matthew Alan Goodwin (AWE Aldermaston)
    • T3.1 Design of Sensor Systems and Advanced Sensor Technologies Rittersaal (Hofburg)



      Poster presenter attendance on: Thursday 27 June from 14:30 to 16:00

      • 160
        High sensitive Xe measurement

        Unfortunately only Xe133 usually detected in the air samples on IMS Noble Gas installations due to its relatively higher concentration in comparison with metastable xenon isotopes which concentrations in the ambient air are on few orders magnitude less and only within short distance to nuclear facilities it is possible to detect them. The new proposed method use Xe sample of big volume for each measurement (>100 cc of pure Xe) and MDC for Xe131m, Xe133, Xe133m and Xe135 in each measured sample are less than 10-5 Bq/m3. We produced a installation for purify the Xe sample from Xe-Kr mixture which are accumulated as a by-product during oxygen and nitrogen production from atmospheric air at different types of air separation plants. During the presentation the design of sample preparation unit, beta-gamma spectrometer suitable for big sample measurement together with the first achieved practical results will be presented.

        Speaker: Yury Popov (Lares LLC)
      • 161
        High Throughput Argon-37 Field System

        PNNL is exploring the use of 37Ar for detecting nuclear explosion, including for use in the International Monitoring System (IMS). A high throughput 37Ar separation and measurement system was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to detect 37Ar activity generated from an underground nuclear explosion. Argon-37 is an activation product generated when neutrons interact with calcium in the soil surrounding an underground nuclear explosion. As a noble gas, argon is unreactive and migrates through the earth and can be released into the atmosphere with the radioxenon fission gases that are also produced during a nuclear explosion. Detection of 37Ar can be a confirmatory measurement for a nuclear test, and when combined with radioxenon isotopes from the same sample the confidence that a nuclear explosion occurred improves significantly. PNNL has performed a large number of soil gas and atmospheric background measurements to understand gas migration of naturally occurring Ar-37 in the soil and for experiments where 37Ar and 127Xe were injected into a nuclear test cavity. PNNL will present on the newly developed Argon-37 High Throughput system as well as discuss measurements made at locations throughout the northwest region of the United States.

        Speaker: James C. Hayes (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)
      • 162
        How useful are (quantum technology) gravity measurements for on-site inspection?

        Gravitational field mapping is permitted by paragraph 69 of the CTBT treaty (1996; UN A/50/1027) to be deployed during the continuation period of an on-site inspection (OSI) to look for features relevant to underground nuclear explosions (UNEs). Examples of features of interest include tunnels used for horizontal emplacements, and underground voids and collapse features caused by vertical emplacements. Whilst current spring based gravity instruments used are limited both by their resolution and by sources of environmental noise superimposed on the measurements, the imminent arrival of quantum technology (QT) gravity sensors based on atom interferometry promise both a far greater resolution and the ability to suppress environmental noise by measuring a gravity gradient, creating a sensor useful in field applications such as during an OSI. This paper will present computer simulations based on mathematical forward modelling of buried UNE relevant targets and realistic noise sources to explore the potential uses of these new sensors in an OSI context. This will allow quantification of the overall improvements to detectability of UNE observables in terms of the depth and size of resolvable features when utilising QT sensors.

        Speaker: Daniel Boddice (University of Birmingham)
      • 163
        Seismically Cued Antineutrino Detectors Have Limited Potential to Monitor Nuclear Explosions

        In this presentation we discuss findings from a study to test the sensitivity of large gadolinium-doped water detectors to antineutrinos released by nuclear-fission explosions, using updated signal and background models and taking advantage of the capacity for seismic observations to provide an analysis trigger. We find that advances in seismic monitoring and neutrino physics have made the detection of explosion-derived antineutrinos more conceivable than previously asserted, but the size and cost of sufficiently sensitive detectors continue to seriously limit applications. Under certain conditions, the antineutrino signature of a 250-kton pure-fission explosion could be identified several hundred kilometers away, in a detector about the size of the largest module proposed for a basic physics experiment. However, for an explosion two orders of magnitude less yield and more of interest because it is harder to verify as being nuclear in nature, the standoff distance shrinks by an order of magnitude likely requiring locating the detector in-country. In principle, such an observation could provide rapid confirmation that the seismic signal coincided with a fission event, possibly useful for cooperative monitoring of nuclear-weapon test sites but unlikely for detecting explosions at long stand-off distances.

        Speaker: Rachel Carr (Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT))
      • 164
        The Feasibility of Using MEMS Technology for Monitoring Large Earthquakes

        Small low-cost microelectromechanical system (MEMS) triaxial sensors provide ground-acceleration measurements of moderate to large earthquakes. However, the common challenge of such sensors are low dynamic range which is because of high self noise of these systems. In this paper, a new configuration for reducing self-noise of MEMS acceleration sensors is provided. Using this configuration, a three-axial acceleration sensor was build. Five sensors of this type were installed at a concrete dam to monitor the response of the dam against large earthquake. During 12 November 2017 Mw 7.3 Sarpol-e Zahab (Iran–Iraq Border) earthquake, this system recorded the earthquake in different locations of the dam. In this paper, the results of such recordings are presented. Moreover, the results of shaking table tests of this acceleration recording system collocated with other acceleration sensors are also presented. The results shows that new configuration of MEMS acceleration sensors could be used to record the seismic motion of large earthquakes.

        Speaker: Anooshiravan Ansari (International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (IIEES))
      • 165
        Using the existing telecommunication optical fiber cables as underwater seismic events detectors

        Detecting ocean-floor seismic activity is crucial for our understanding of the interior structure and dynamic behavior of the Earth. However, 70% of the planet's surface is covered by water and seismometers coverage is limited to a handful of permanent ocean bottom stations. It can be shown that existing telecommunication optical fiber cables can detect seismic events when combined with state-of-the-art frequency metrology techniques by using the fiber itself as the sensing element. As it was found, the existing underwater telecommunication optical fiber cables could be used in this way without disruptions to service and without having to make any changes to the cables. All that would be needed would be to gain access to one of a group of channels on both ends of a cable. Each side would be fitted with a special laser-based detector to continually monitor the signal. The researchers suggest that if enough of the cables under the oceans were used as seismic monitors they could offer access to unprecedented types of information—information that could be used to predict tsunamis, for example, or to better understand global seismic activity as it relates to plate shifting and volcanism.

        Speaker: Yurii Pashkov (Main Centre of Special Monitoring)
    • T2.3 Seismoacoustic Sources in Theory and Practice Forum (Hofburg)



      Poster presenter attendance on: Thursday 27 June from 15:00 to 16:00

      • 166
        Analysis result of DPRK’s nuclear test using Korea Meteorological Administration(KMA) infrasound network

        KMA has been operating infrasound array stations at Cheorwon(CW) and Yanggu(YG) since 2011. KMA’s infrasound stations successfully detected the azimuthal directions of the arrivals of the infrasound signals generated from DPRK’s underground nuclear explosions. Recently, we tested ray tracing simulation of infrasound wave propagation in the atmosphere generated from the calculation methods of Ray tracing method, Normal mode method, Parabolic equation method. Analysis results from 4th to 6th DPRK’s tests of ray tracing simulation using KMA's atmospheric data and numerical simulation results pointed out proper azimuthal directions from test site to CW and YG. KMA's mission is to detect precise azimuthal direction and origin time generated from DPRK's explosion, ICBM missile launching and Nuclear test. Since current network is located in eastern part of DMZ(demilitarized zone) to monitor DPRK’s nuclear test, three new infrasound arrays will be installed at western part of DMZ in 2019 to fill the gap of monitoring area and increase detection rate. Currently, we are finding the potential sites to deploy the sensors which are made up array networks and to find proper configurations to improve detection rate. Installing the sensors that meet the CTBTO’s standard regulations and find optimal wind-noise reducing systems are also important.

        Speaker: Youngsoo Jeon (Korea Meteorological Administration)
      • 167
        Analyzing the Reduced Displacement Potentials of DPRK Nuclear Explosions Using Waveform Equalization Technique

        We equalize regional P, surface, and the P+surface waves simultaneously to estimate reduced displacement potential (RDP) and depth of burial (DOB) of DPRK nuclear explosions, using waveforms from the stations at IRIS DMC. RDPs are predicted using the formula in Saikia (2017). The algorithm starts with the initial RDP and DOBs for two explosions. RDP of one explosion S1 is convolved with the other explosion recorded data O2, and vice-versa (i.e., S2 with O1), which generates two convolution seismograms: S1O2 and S2O1. The objective is to minimize the differential error between the two convolution seismograms, and achieve an optimization by cycling through the parameter space. Next we fix the RDP and DOBs of these two explosions using the derived optimized values and continue the process to include the next explosion. Thus, we have two additional source convolved seismograms: S3O1 and S3O2 to minimize the global error between these constructed differential seismograms. We continue the process until the last explosion is included. The investigation resulted RDP and DOB parameters consistent with those established by other investigators except for the September 3, 2017 explosion, which is caused by the influence of non-isotropic seismic sources, andwhich is a topic of current investigation.

        Speaker: Chandan Saikia (U.S. Air Force Technical Applications Center)
      • 168
        Data analysis and simulations of the Source Physics Experiments: Impact on explosion discrimination & monitoring

        The Source Physics Experiments (SPE) are a series of controlled chemical explosions at the Nevada National Security Site to gather observations to verify and validate explosions physics-based numerical models, and to understand, in particular, the genesis of shear waves to improve nuclear monitoring capabilities. Executed between 2011 and 2016, SPE Phase I included six chemical explosions conducted in the same Climax Stock granite borehole with different yields and different depths. Phase II, however, includes only four chemical explosions and are being conducted in dry alluvium geology (DAG). The first two, DAG-1 and DAG-2 have been successfully executed in 2018. In a multi-laboratory effort, we developed a comprehensive nested numerical framework to simulate from end-to-end, source-to-receivers, the waves generated from the non-linear explosion source-region to linear-elastic seismoacoustic distances. We present the analysis of all SPE collected data, summarize how modeling predictions compare to observed data and draw lessons learned. We also share insights on the main mechanisms of generating shear motions in granite and alluvium. Moreover, the team has developed schemes of uncertainty propagation of the geological characterization and geophysical parameters pertinent to denied access and remote sites. We present the impacts of those uncertainties on enhancing source discrimination.

        Speaker: Souheil Ezzedine (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory)
    • 169
      Coffee Break
    • 170
      Closing Session And Award Ceremony


      • Closing Remarks: Lassina Zerbo, CTBTO Executive Secretary
      • Closing Remarks: Nurcan Meral Ozel, Tammy Taylor, Project Executives
      • Closing Remarks: Zeinabou Mindaoudou Souley, Paul Richards, Scientific Program Committee
      • Awards Presentation Ceremony

    • 171
      Lunch and Reception